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About Saudi Arabia:

Saudi Arabia


officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Country, Middle East.

It occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula and is bounded by the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Area: 868,000 sq mi (2,480,000 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 23,370,000. Capital: Riyadh. The people are predominantly Arab. Language: Arabic (official). Religion: Islam (official), mostly Sunnite. Currency: Saudi rial. The country is a plateau region, with bands of imposing highlands rising from the narrow Red Sea coast. More than nine-tenths is desert, including the world's largest continuous sand area, the Rub al-Khali ("Empty Quarter"). The largest petroleum producer of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the third largest producer in the world, Saudi Arabia has reserves that represent one-fourth of the world total. Its other products include natural gas, gypsum, dates, wheat, and desalinated water. It is a monarchy; its head of state and government is the king. Saudi Arabia is the historical home of Islam. During premodern times, local and foreign rulers fought for control of the region; in 1517 the Ottoman Empire attained nominal control of most of the peninsula. In the 18th–19th centuries an Islamic reform group known as the Wahhābiyyah joined with the Saūd dynasty to take control of most of central Arabia. Despite political setbacks, they regained most of their territory by 1904. The British held Saudi lands as a protectorate (1915–27), after which they acknowledged the sovereignty of the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd. The two kingdoms were unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. Since World War II (1939–45), the kingdom's rulers have supported the Palestinian cause in the Middle East and maintained close ties with the U.S. In 2000 Saudi Arabia and Yemen settled a long-standing border dispute. [DOUBLEPOST=1359255431][/DOUBLEPOST]About UAE:

United Arab Emirates (UAE)


formerly Trucial States

Federation of seven states, eastern Arabian Peninsula.
They are the emirates of Abū Zabī (Abu Dhabi), Dubayy (Dubai), ʽAjmān, Al-Shāriqah (Sharjah), Umm al-Qaywayn, Raʾs al-Khaymah, and Al-Fujayrah. Area: 32,280 sq mi (83,600 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 32,550,000. Capital: Abu Dhabi. The indigenous inhabitants are Arabs, but there are a large number of Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Iranian migrant workers. Languages: Arabic (official), English, Persian, Urdu, Hindi. Religions: Islam (official), Christianity, Hinduism. Currency: UAE dirham. The United Arab Emirates' low-lying desert plain is broken by the ajar Mountains along the Musandam Peninsula. Three natural deepwater harbours are located along the Gulf of Oman. The UAE has roughly one-tenth of the world's petroleum reserves and significant natural gas deposits, the production of which are the federation's principal industries. Other important economic activities include fishing, livestock herding, and date production. The federation has one appointive advisory board; its chief of state is the president, and the head of government is the prime minister. In 1820 the British signed a peace treaty with the region's coastal rulers. The area, formerly called the Pirate Coast, became known as the Trucial Coast. In 1892 the rulers agreed to entrust foreign relations to Britain. Although the British administered the region from 1843, they never assumed sovereignty; each state maintained full internal control. The states formed the Trucial States Council in 1960 and in 1971 terminated defense treaties with Britain and established the six-member federation. Raʾs al-Khaymah joined it in 1972. The UAE aided coalition forces against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War (1991). [DOUBLEPOST=1359255465][/DOUBLEPOST]About Iraq:

Iraq


officially Republic of Iraq
Middle Eastern country, northwest of the Persian Gulf.

Area: 167,975 sq mi (435,052 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 24,002,000. Capital: Baghdad. The population consists mainly of an Arab majority and a Kurd minority. Language: Arabic (official). Religion: Islam (official); two-thirds Shīʽites, one-third Sunnites. Currency: dinar. The country can be divided into four major regions: the Tigris-Euphrates river basin in central and southeastern Iraq; Al-Jazīrah, an upland region in the north between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers; deserts in the west and south, covering about two-fifths of the country; and highlands in the northeast. Iraq has the world's second largest proven reserves of petroleum, and it has substantial reserves of natural gas. Agriculture employs one-eighth of the labour force. Iraq is a republic with one legislative house; its head of state is the president. Called Mesopotamia in Classical times, the region gave rise to the world's earliest civilizations, including those of Sumer, Akkad, and Babylon. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, the area later became a battleground between Romans and Parthians, then between Sāsānians and the Byzantines. Arab Muslims conquered it in the 7th century AD, and various Muslim dynasties ruled until the Mongols took over in 1258. The Ottoman Empire took control in the 16th century and ruled until the British occupied the country during World War I (1914–18). The British created the kingdom of Iraq in 1921 and occupied Iraq again during World War II (1939–45). The monarchy was restored following the war, but a revolution caused its downfall in 1958. Following a series of military coups, the socialist Bath Party, eventually led by Saddām Hussein, took control and established totalitarian rule in 1968. The Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s and the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91 caused extensive death and destruction. The economy languished under a UN economic embargo imposed on Iraq in the 1990s. The embargo began to erode by the early 21st century, but in 2003 an Anglo-American invasion drove the Baʽth Party from power. [DOUBLEPOST=1359255508][/DOUBLEPOST]About Iran:
IRAN

officially Islamic Republic of Iran formerly Persia
Country, Middle East.
Area: 629,315 sq mi (1,629,918 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 65,457,000. Capital: Tehrān. Persians constitute nearly half of its population; other ethnic groups include the Kurds, Lurs, Bakhtyari, and Balochi. Language: Persian (Farsi; official). Religion: Islam (official); most are Shīʽites. Currency: rial. Iran occupies a high plateau rising higher than 1,500 ft (460 m) above sea level and is surrounded largely by mountains. More than half of its surface area consists of salt deserts and other wasteland. About one-tenth of its land is arable, and another one-fourth is suitable for grazing. Iran's rich petroleum reserves account for about one-tenth of world reserves and are the basis of its economy. It is an Islamic republic with one legislative house but several oversight bodies dominated by the clergy. The head of state and government is the president, but supreme authority rests with the leader (rahbar), a ranking cleric. Human habitation in Iran dates to some 100,000 years ago, but recorded history began with the Elamites с 3000 BC. The Medes flourished from с 728 BC but were overthrown (550 BC) by the Persians, who were in turn conquered by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. The Parthians (see Parthia) created an empire that lasted from 247 BC to AD 226, when control passed to the Sāsānian dynasty. Various Muslim dynasties ruled from the 7th century. In 1502 the Safavid dynasty was established and lasted until 1736. The Qājār dynasty ruled from 1779, but in the 19th century the country was economically controlled by the Russian and British empires. Reza Khan (see Reza Shah Pahlavi) seized power in a coup (1921). His son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi alienated religious leaders with a program of modernization and Westernization and was overthrown in 1979; Shīʽite cleric Ruhollah Khomeini then set up an Islamic republic, and Western influence was suppressed. The destructive Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s ended in a stalemate. During the 1990s, the government gradually moved to a more liberal conduct of state affairs.


Expression used:

Islamic Republic of Iran

Iran hostage crisis

Iran Contra Affair

Iran Iraq War
 

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About North America:

North America


Continent, Western Hemisphere.

The third-largest continent on earth, it lies mostly between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer. It is almost completely surrounded by bodies of water, including the Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Area: 9,361,791 sq mi (24,247,039 sq km). Population (2001 est.): 454,225,000. Shaped like an inverted triangle, North America was apparently the first continent to achieve its current approximate size and shape. Its geologic structure is built around a stable platform of Precambrian rock called the Canadian Shield. To the southeast are the Appalachian Mountains and to the west are the younger and much taller Cordilleras. These mountains extend the length of the continent and occupy about one-third of the total land area. The Rocky Mountains constitute the eastern Cordillera. The highest point is Mount McKinley. The Mississippi River basin, including its major tributaries, the Missouri and Ohio, occupies more than one-eighth of the continent's total area. Generally temperate climatic conditions prevail. Arable land accounts for about one-eighth of the land area and forests for about one-third. English, the primary language of the U.S., predominates, followed by Spanish; French is spoken in parts of Canada. Most of the continent's population of European descent is found in the U.S. and Canada. Intermarriage between whites and Indians was common in Mexico, and mestizos constitute about three-fifths of the Mexican population. North America has a mixture of developed, partly developed, and developing economies, adequate reserves of most metallic resources, and the world's largest reserves of cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver, and zinc. It is the world's leading food producer, largely because of mechanized and scientific farming in the U.S. and Canada. Among the continent's democratically governed states are Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, and the U.S. The nations of North America have sought hemispheric unity as members of the Organization of American States, which also includes South American countries. They also sought stronger economic ties, and in 1992 Canada, the U.S., and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which called for the elimination of most tariffs and other trade barriers between the three countries. The first inhabitants were American Indians, who migrated from Asia about 20,000 years ago. The greatest pre-Columbian civilizations were in Mesoamerica (see Mesoamerican civilization) and included the Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec, who were conquered by the Spanish. The continent long remained sparsely settled and undeveloped. Beginning in the 17th century it underwent a profound transformation with the coming of Europeans and the Africans they introduced as slaves. The style of life became Latin American south of the Rio Grande and Anglo-American to the north, with enclaves of French culture in Canada and Louisiana. Slavery, practiced in the 16th–19th centuries, added a significant minority culture of African origin, especially in the U.S. and the Caribbean (see West Indies). The huge industrial economy of the U.S., its abundant resources, and its military strength give the continent considerable global influence. [DOUBLEPOST=1359255580][/DOUBLEPOST]About SOuth America:

South America


Continent, Western Hemisphere.
The world's fourth largest continent, it is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is separated from Antarctica by the Drake Passage and is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama. Area: 6,895,210 sq mi (17,858,520sq km). Pop., 2002 est.: 350,977,000. Four main ethnic groups have populated South America: Indians, who were the continent's pre-Columbian inhabitants; Spanish and Portuguese who dominated the continent from the 16th to the early 19th century; Africans imported as slaves; and the postindependence immigrants from overseas, mostly Germans and southern Europeans but also Lebanese, South Asians, and Japanese. Nine-tenths of the people are Christian, the vast majority of whom are Roman Catholic. Spanish is the official language everywhere except in Brazil (Portuguese), French Guiana (French), Guyana (English), and Suriname (Dutch); some Indian languages are spoken. South America has three major geographic regions. In the west, the Andes Mountains, which are prone to seismic activity, extend the length of the continent; Mount Aconcagua, at 22,834 ft (6,960 m), is the highest peak in the Western Hemisphere. Highlands lie in the north and east, bordered by lowland sedimentary basins that include the Amazon River, the world's largest drainage basin, and the Pampas of eastern Argentina, whose fertile soils constitute one of South America's most productive agricultural areas. Other important drainage systems include those of the Orinoco and São Francisco rivers and the ParanáParaguay–Río de la Plata system. Four-fifths of South America lies within the tropics, but it also has temperate, arid, and cold climatic regions. Less than one-tenth of its land is arable, producing mainly corn (maize), wheat, and rice, and about one-fourth is under permanent pasture. About half is covered by forest, mainly the enormous but steadily diminishing rainforest of the Amazon basin. Almost one-fourth of all the world's known animal species live in the continent's rainforests, plateaus, rivers, and swamps. South America has one-eighth of the world's total deposits of iron and one-fourth of its copper reserves. Exploitation of these and numerous other mineral resources are important to the economies of many regions. Commercial crops include bananas, citrus fruits, sugar, and coffee; fishing is important along the Pacific coast. Trade in illegal narcotics (mostly for export) is a major source of revenue in some countries. Most countries have free-market or mixed (state and private enterprise) economies. Income tends to be unevenly distributed between large numbers of poor people and a small number of wealthy families, with the middle classes, though growing, still a minority in most countries. Asiatic hunters and gatherers are thought to have been the first settlers, probably arriving less than 12,000 years ago. The growth of agriculture from с 2500 BC (it had begun some 6,000 years earlier) initiated a period of rapid cultural evolution whose greatest development occurred in the central Andes region and culminated with the Inca empire. European exploration began when Christopher Columbus landed in 1498; thereafter Spanish and Portuguese adventurers (see conquistadores) opened it for plunder and, later, settlement. According to terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal received the eastern part of the continent, while Spain received the rest. The Indian peoples were decimated by this contact, and most of those who survived were reduced to a form of serfdom. The continent was free of European rule by the early 1800s except for the Guianas. Most of the countries adopted a republican form of government; however, social and economic inequalities or border disputes led to periodic revolutions in many of them, and by the early 20th century most had fallen under some form of autocratic rule. All joined the United Nations after World War II (1938–45), and all joined the Organization of American States in 1948. By the second half of the 20th century most countries had begun to integrate their economies into world markets, and by the 1990s most had embraced democratic rule. [DOUBLEPOST=1359255624][/DOUBLEPOST]About Antarctica:

Antarctica


Fifth largest continent on Earth.
Antarctica lies concentrically about the South Pole, its landmass almost wholly covered by a vast ice sheet averaging 6,500 ft (2,000 m) thick. It is divided into two subcontinents: East Antarctica, consisting mainly of a high, ice-covered plateau, and West Antarctica, consisting largely of an archipelago of mountainous islands covered with ice. Its land area is about 5.5 million sq mi (14.2 million sq km). The southern portions of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans surround it (see Antarctic regions). Antarctica would be circular except for the outflaring Antarctic Peninsula and two principal bays, the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. East and West Antarctica are separated by the long chain (1,900 mi [3,000 km]) of the Transantarctic Mountains. The ice sheet overlaying the continent represents about 90% of the world's glacial ice. By far the coldest continent, it has the world's lowest recorded temperature, -128.6 °F (-89.2 °C), measured in 1983. The climate supports only a small community of land plants, but the rich offshore food supply sustains penguins and immense seabird rookeries. There are no permanent human inhabitants. The Russian F.G. von Bellingshausen (b. 1778
d. 1852), the Englishman Edward Bransfield (b. 1795?
d. 1852), and the American Nathaniel Palmer (b. 1799
d. 1877) all claimed first sightings of the continent in 1820. The period to с 1900 was dominated by the exploration of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seas. The early 20th century, the "heroic era" of Antarctic exploration, produced expeditions deep into the interior by
Robert Falcon Scott and later Ernest Shackleton. The South Pole was reached by Roald Amundsen in December 1911 and by Scott in January 1912. The first half of the 20th century was also Antarctica's colonial period. Seven nations claimed sectors of the continent, while many other nations carried out explorations. In the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58, 12 nations established over 50 stations on the continent for cooperative study. In 1961 the Antarctic Treaty, reserving Antarctica for free and nonpolitical scientific study, entered into full force. A 1991 agreement imposed a ban on mineral exploitation for 50 years.
 

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About Australia:

Australia


officially Commonwealth of Australia


Smallest continent and sixth largest country (in area) on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans.

Area: 2,969,910 sq mi (7,692,030 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 19,702,000. Capital: Canberra. Most Australians are descendants of Europeans. The largest nonwhite minority is the Australian Aboriginals. The Asian portion of the population has grown as a result of relaxed immigration policy. Language: English (official). Religions: Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism. Currency: Australian dollar. Australia has four major physiographic regions. More than half its land area is on the Western Australian Shield, which includes the outcrops of Arnhem Land and the Kimberleys in the northwest and the Macdonnell Ranges in the east. A second region, the Great Artesian Basin, lies east of the shield. The Eastern Uplands, which include the Great Dividing Range, are a series of high ridges, plateaus, and basins. The fourth region is the Flinders–Mount Lofty ranges. The country's highest point is Mount Kosciusko in the Australian Alps, and the lowest is Lake Eyre. Major rivers include the Murray-Darling system, the Flinders and Swan rivers, and Cooper Creek. There are many islands and reefs along the coast, including the Great Barrier Reef, Melville Island, Kangaroo Island, and Tasmania. Australia is rich in mineral resources, including coal, petroleum, and uranium. A vast diamond deposit was found in Western Australia in 1979. The country's economy is basically free-enterprise; its largest components include finance, manufacturing, and trade. Formally a constitutional monarchy, its chief of state is the British monarch, represented by the governor-general. In reality it is a parliamentary state with two legislative houses; its head of government is the prime minister. Australia has long been inhabited by Aboriginals, who arrived 40,000–60,000 years ago. Estimates of the population at the time of European settlement in 1788 range from 300,000 to more than 1,000,000. Widespread European knowledge of Australia began with 17th-century explorations. The Dutch landed in 1616 and the British in 1688, but the first large-scale expedition was that of James Cook in 1770, which established Britain's claim to Australia. The first English settlement, at Port Jackson (1788), consisted mainly of convicts and seamen; convicts were to make up a large proportion of the incoming settlers. By 1859 the colonial nuclei of all Australia's states had been formed, but with devastating effects on the indigenous peoples, whose population declined sharply with the introduction of European diseases and weaponry. Britain granted its colonies limited self-government in the mid 19th century, and an act federating the colonies into a commonwealth was passed in 1900. Australia fought alongside the British in World War I, notably at Gallipoli, and again in World War II, preventing Australia's occupation by the Japanese. It joined the U.S. in the Korean and Vietnam wars. Since the 1960s the government has sought to deal more fairly with the Aboriginals, and a loosening of immigration restrictions has led to a more heterogeneous population. Constitutional links allowing British interference in government were formally abolished in 1968, and Australia has assumed a leading role in Asian and Pacific affairs. During the 1990s it experienced several debates about giving up its British ties and becoming a republic. [DOUBLEPOST=1359255686][/DOUBLEPOST]About Africa:


Africa


Second largest continent on Earth.
It is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean and is divided almost equally by the Equator. Area: 11,717,370 sq mi (30,348,110 sq km). Population (2001 est.): 816,524,000. Africa is composed largely of a rigid platform of ancient rocks that underlies vast plateau regions in the interior. Its average elevation is about 2,200 ft (670 m), but elevations range from 19,340 ft (5,895 m) at Mount Kilimanjaro to 515 ft (157 m) below sea level at Lake Assal. The Sahara, the world's largest contiguous desert, occupies more than one-fourth of the total land area. The continent's hydrology is dominated by the Nile River in the north, the Niger River in the west, and the Congo River in central Africa. Less than one-tenth of the land area is arable, while nearly one-fourth is forested or wooded. The peoples of Africa probably speak more languages than those of any other continent. Arabic is predominant from Egypt to Mauritania and in The Sudan. Northern Africans speak a family of languages known as Afro-Asiatic. The vast majority of sub-Saharan peoples speak Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo family, while smaller numbers in central Africa speak Nilo-Saharan languages and in southern Africa Khoisan languages. Peoples of European descent are found mostly in the south; Dutch (Boer) migrations began in the 17th century, and the English first settled in what is now Kenya and Zimbabwe in the 19th century. Africa as a whole is a developing region. Agriculture is the key sector of the economy in most countries. Diamond and gold mining are especially important in the south, while petroleum and natural gas are produced particularly in the west. Most African governments are controlled by the military or a single party. Many legal systems combine laws introduced by European powers during the colonial era with traditional law, though North African countries derive many laws from Islam. African leaders have sought to develop a pan-African approach to the continent's political and military affairs through the Organization of African Unity and its successor, the African Union. Africa is widely recognized as the birthplace of humankind. Archaeological evidence indicates that the continent has been inhabited by humans and their hominid forebears for some 4,000,000 years or more. Anatomically modern humans are believed to have appeared about 100,000 years ago in the eastern region of sub-Saharan Africa. Somewhat later these early humans spread into northern Africa and the Middle East and, ultimately, to the rest of the world. Africa's first great historical kingdom, Egypt, arose along the Nile с 3000 BC and flourished for nearly 3,000 years. The Phoenicians established a colony at Carthage and controlled the western Mediterranean for nearly 600 years. While northern Africa was dominated by the Romans for several centuries, the first known empire in western Africa was Ghana (5th–11th century AD). Muslim empires included those of Mali (с 1250–1400) and Songhai (с 1400–1591). In eastern and central Africa the emphasis was on trade with Arabia, and several powerful city-states, including Mogadishu and Mombasa, were established. The Portuguese explored the western coast in the 15th century. Before the late 19th century, Europe showed little interest in colonizing Africa, but by 1884 European countries had begun a scramble to partition the continent, and by 1920 much of it was under colonial rule. Anticolonial sentiment developed gradually, becoming widespread after 1950, and one by one the colonies became independent, the last in 1990. Political instability, refugee problems, famine, and AIDS are the chief problems facing the continent at the start of the 21st century.
 

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ABOUT AFGHANISTAN:

Afghanistan


Officially Islamic State of Afghanistan
Country, south-central Asia.
Area: 251,825 sq mi (652,225 sq km). Population (2002 est.: 27,756,000). Capital: Kabul. About two-fifths of the people belong to the Pashtun ethnic group; other ethnic groups include Tajiks, Uzbeks, and azāra. Languages: Pashto, Persian (both official). Religion: Islam (official). Currency: afghani. Afghanistan has three distinctive regions: the northern plains are the major agricultural area; the southwestern plateau consists primarily of desert and semiarid landscape; the central highlands, including the Hindu Kush, separates these regions. Afghanistan has a developing economy based largely on agriculture; its significant mineral resources remain largely untapped because of the Afghan War of the 1980s and subsequent fighting. Traditional handicrafts remain important; woolen carpets are a major export. The area was part of the Persian Achaemenian Empire in the 6th century BC and was conquered by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Hindu influence entered with the Hephthalites and Sāsānians; Islam became entrenched during the rule of the affārids, с AD 870. Afghanistan was divided between the Mughal Empire of India and the Safavid empire of Persia until the 18th century, when other Persians under Nādir Shah took control. Britain fought several wars in the area in the 19th century. From the 1930s the country had a stable monarchy, which was overthrown in the 1970s. Marxist reforms sparked rebellion, and Soviet troops invaded. Afghan guerrillas prevailed, and the Soviets withdrew in 1989. In 1992 rebel factions overthrew the government and established an Islamic republic. In 1996 the Taliban militia took power and enforced a harsh Islamic order. The militia's unwillingness to extradite extremist leader Osama bin Laden and members of his al-Qaeda organization following the September 11 attacks in 2001 led to military conflict with the U.S. and allied nations, the overthrow of the Taliban, and the establishment of an interim government.

Afghanistan was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union in 1979. The USSR was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, but the fundamentalist Islamic Taliban movement has been able to seize most of the country. In addition to the continuing civil strife, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread live mines.

STATISTICAL DATA:

Official Name:

Islamic State of Afghanistan

National Name:
Dawlat Islami Afghanistan

Location:
Southern Asia, north of Pakistan


Population:
22,664,136

Area:
250,000 sq. mi.; 647,500 sq. km


Capital:
Kabul

Monetary Unit:

Afghani

Major Cities:

Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Mazare Sharif

Languages:
Pushtu, Dari Persian, other Turkic and minor languages


Religions:
Islam

Neighboring Countries:

Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan


Conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan
Local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
Local short form: Afghanestan
Former: Republic of Afghanistan
Area : 652,262 sq.km.
Population : 25,824,882
Capital : Kabul
Currency : Afghani, Pul
Ethnic Group : Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Mongolian, Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch

Language : Pashto, Dari (Farsi), Afghan Persian, Turkic (Uzbek, Turkmen), Baluchi, Pashai, Pahlawi, Bilingualism

National Day (y/m/d) : 4/27 (Victory of the Muslim Nation); 5/4 (Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled); 8/19 (Independence Day)

Independent Day : 1919/8/19 (From UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

Continent : Asia

Religion : Sunni Muslim, Shiite Muslim, Norestan

The nomadic population in Afghanistan was estimated to be about 2.5 million people. During the war with the Soviets the number of Afghan refugees outside the country escalated dramatically, with as many as 2.5 million to 3 million refugees in Pakistan and another 1.5 million in Iran. About 150,000 Afghans were able to migrate permanently to other countries, including the United States, Australia, and various European countries.

Afghanistan divided in 32 Provinces :

Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimrozi, Norestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol

Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees. In early 1999, 1.2 million Afghan refugees remained in Pakistan and about 1.4 million in Iran. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious problem throughout the country. International aid can deal with only a fraction of the humanitarian problem, let alone promote economic development. The economic situation did not improve in 1998-99, as internal civil strife continued, hampering both domestic economic policies and international aid efforts. Numerical data are likely to be either unavailable or unreliable. Afghanistan was by far the largest producer of opium poppies in 1999, and narcotics trafficking is a major source of revenue. [DOUBLEPOST=1359255848][/DOUBLEPOST]
DO U KNOW THAT

* Paleontology is the science of history of life.
* Mahavira(founder of jainism)and gautama buddha (founder of buddism) were contemporaries and flourished in india in the 6th century B.C.
* The three pyramids of eqypt were built from 2700 to 2500 B.C.,these are tombs of khufu,khafra and menkaura.
* The great wall of china was completed in 204 B.C.it is 1500 miles long.Its average height is 25 feet and about 12 feet wide at the top.
* The city rome was founded in 753 B.C. by romolus.
* Christianity emerged as the distinct sect in the second half of the first century A.D.
* The light of islam dawned in the 7th century A.D. when in 611 A.D. The Holy Prophet of Islam Muhammad (P.B.U.H) announced the revelation from the one true Allah.
* The muslim rule of spain lasted from 711 to 1492 A.D.
* The earth is calculated to b 4540 million years old.
* The statue of liberty (newyork) was installed in 1886.It is 151 feet one inch high from the base to torch.
* The world is divided into 24 time zones,each 15` longtitude wide. the longitudinal meridian passing through greenwich,England is the starting point and is called the prime meridian.
* Christopher columbus discovered bahamas on 12 oct 1492 A.D.
* Ostrich is the largest bird in the world.
* Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil in the world.
* The world famous golden gate bridge is located in San francisco(usa).
* Russia invaded afghanistan on dec 27,1979.
* Hongkong was returned to china on july 1,1997.
* Eritrea became an independent state on may 24,1993.
* The normal temperature of human body is 98.6 F.
* A billion contain 1000 million. It has 9 zeroes. similarly a trillion has 12 zeroes,a quadrillion 15 zeroes,a quintillion 18 zeroes and a decillion 33 zeroes.
* One inch is equal to 2.5400 cms and one mile is equal to 1.6093 kms.
* About half of the world population speaks indo-european languages. The Indo-European branch to which english belongs is germanic.
* Air is composed of nitrogen (78.08%),oxygen (20.95%),argon (0.94%) and carbon dioxide (0.03%).
* The original inhabitants of USA are known as Red Indians.
* Out of the 193 sovereign independent nations of the world 147 are republics and other 46 are under personal rules (14 kings,1 emperor,3 queens,7 hereditary sheikhs,1 grand duke,2 sultans,1 constitutional monarch etc).
* Gwadar became a part of pakistan on september 9,1958.
* All india mulim league was formulated on december 30,1906 and first president was Sir Agha Khan.
* Hygrometer is instrument used for measuring humidity of air.
* Heliscope is used for viewing the sun.
* Asian development bank was established in 1966 with headquarter located at manila(philipine)
* China has the largest population,russia has largest land area and vatican city has smallest population and land area in the world
* Afghanistan got independence on 19th aug 1919.
* Lord clive was the first and lord mountbatten was the last british ruler of india.
* Air conditioner invented by "willis H. carrier"u.s. in 1902.
* Camera(photographic) has been invented by "Joseph N. Niepce"france in 1822.
* Largest continent of the world is "asia" and smallest is "australia".Largest ocean of the world is "pacific ocean"and smallest ocean is "indian ocean".The Sahara is the largest desert of the world.
* Kazakhstan is the largest muslim country in landarea in the world.it has an area of 1,049,000 sq.miles.Maldives is the smallest muslim country in land area of 115 sq. miles.
* Indonesia is the most populous muslim country and maldives is less populous muslim country.
* Antarctica is the uninhabited continent of the world which is without any regular population.
* Seoul (south korea) is the most populous city of the world.
* The lake baikal of russia has the maximum depth of 5315 feet.[DOUBLEPOST=1359255910][/DOUBLEPOST]Intersting Facts:

"Adcomsubordcomphibspac" is the longest acronym. It is a Navy term standing for Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Subordinate Command.

"Almost" is the longest commonly used word in the English language with all the letters in alphabetical order.

"Asthma" and "isthmi" are the only six-letter words that begin and end with a vowel and have no other vowels between.

"Billie Jean" by Michael Jackson was the first video to air on MTV by a black artist.

"Dreamt" is the only English word that ends in the letters "mt".

"Duff" is the decaying organic matter found on a forest floor.

"Fickleheaded" and "fiddledeedee" are the longest words consisting only of letters in the first half of the alphabet.

"Flushable" toilets were in use in ancient Rome.

"Fortnight" is a contraction of "fourteen nights." In the US "two weeks" is more commonly used.

"Forty" is the only number which has its letters in alphabetical order. "One" is the only number with its letters in reverse alphabetical order.

"Four" is the only number whose number of letters in the name equals the number.

"Hang on Sloopy" is the official rock song of Ohio.

"Happy Birthday" was the first song to be performed in outer space, sung by the Apollo IX astronauts on March 8, 1969.

""Kemo Sabe, meaning an all knowing one, is actually a mispronunciation by Native American of the Spanish phrase, Quien lo Sabe, meaning one who knows."

The lunula is the half-moon shaped pale area at the bottom of finger nails.

"Ma is as selfless as I am" can be read the same way backwards. If you take away all the spaces you can see that all the letters can be spelled out both ways.

"Mad About You" star Paul Reiser plays the piano on the show's theme song.

"One thousand" contains the letter A, but none of the words from one to nine hundred ninety-nine has an A.

"Ough" can be pronounced in eight different ways. The following sentence contains them all: "A rough-coated, dough-faced ploughman strode through the streets of Scarborough, coughing and hiccoughing thoughtfully.

"Rhythms" is the longest English word without the normal vowels, a, e, i, o, or u.

"Second string," meaning "replacement or backup," comes from the middle ages. An archer always carried a second string in case the one on his bow broke.

"Speak of the Devil" is short for "Speak of the Devil and he shall come". It was believed that if you spoke about the Devil it would attract his attention. That's why when you're talking about someone and they show up people say "Speak of the Devil."

"Stewardesses" is the longest word that can be typed with only the left hand.

"Tautonyms" are scientific names for which the genus and species are the same.

"Taxi" is spelled exactly the same in English, French, German, Swedish, Portuguese, and Dutch.

"Teh" means "cool" in Thai. (Pronounced "tay").

"The sixth sick sheik's sixth sheep's sick" is said to be the toughest tongue twister in English.

"THEREIN" is a seven-letter word that contains thirteen words spelled using consecutive letters: the, he, her, er, here, I, there, ere, rein, re, in, therein, and herein.

"Underground" is the only word in the English language that begins and ends with the letters "und." $203,000,000 is spent on barbed wire each year in the U.S.

1 and 2 are the only numbers where they are values of the numbers of the factors they have.

1 in 5,000 north Atlantic lobsters are born bright blue.

1 in every 3 people in the country of Israel use a cell phone.

In Disney's Fantasia, the Sorcerer to whom Mickey played an apprentice was named Yensid, which is Disney spelled backward.

By raising your legs slowly and lying on your back, you cannot sink into quicksand.

Charlie Chaplin once won third prize in a Charlie Chaplin look-alike contest.

A "Blue Moon" is the second full moon in a calendar month (it is rarely blue).

A "hairbreadth away" is 1/48 of an inch.

A "jiffy" is actually a proper time unit for 1/100th of a second

A "quidnunc" is a person who is eager to know the latest news and gossip.

A B-25 bomber crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building on July 28, 1945.

A Baboon called "Jackie" became a private in the South African army in World War I.

A bat is the only mammal that flies.

A bathometer is an instrument for indicating the depth of the sea beneath a moving vessel.

A bean has more DNA per cell than a human cell

A bee could travel 4 million miles (6.5 million km) at 7 mph (11 km/h) on the energy it would obtain from 1 gallon (3.785 liters) of nectar, or it could just sit down on and enjoy that honey properly.

A beaver's teeth never stop growing.

A bibliophile is a collector of rare books. A bibliopole is a seller of rare books.

A bird requires more food in proportion to its size than a baby or a cat.

A Blue Earth, Minnesota, law declares that no child under the age of twelve may talk over the telephone unless monitored by a parent.

A blue whales heart only beats nine times per minute.

A body decomposes four times as fast in water than on land.

A Boeing 747's wingspan is longer than the Wright brother's first flight.

A bowling pin only needs to tilt 7.5 degrees to fall.

A broken clock is right at least twice a day.

A butterfly can look at you through 12,000 eyes.

A hippo can open its mouth wide enough to fit a 4 foot tall child inside.
 

Hoorain

*In search of Oyster Pearls*
VIP
Dec 31, 2009
108,467
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A n3st!
Army Rulers of Pakistan since 1947.

Supreme Commander India & Pakistan:
1947.08.15 F.M. Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck

Commander in Chief:
1947.08.15 Gen. Sir Frank Walter Messervy.
1948.02.11 Gen. Sir Douglas David Gracey.
1951.01.17 F.M. Al-Haj H.E. Mohammed Ayub Khan.
1958.10.27 Gen. Muhammad Musa.
1966.09.18 Gen. Agha Muhammad Yahya khan.
1971.12.20 Lt-Gen. Gul Hassan Khan.

Chief of the Army Staff:
1972.03.03 Gen. Tikka Khan.
1976.03.01 Gen. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.
1988.08.17 Gen. Mirza Aslam Beg.
1991.08.16 Gen. Asif Nawaz Janjua.
1993.01.12 Gen. Abdul Waheed Kakar.
1996.01.12 Gen. Jehangir Karamat.
1998.10.17 Gen. Pervaiz Musharraf.[DOUBLEPOST=1359256623][/DOUBLEPOST]Verb



The following is the information about the function of verb in English Grammar.

More about Verb

Keep the following principles in your mind when you speak English as given below:

 Verb shows an action and it is considered as an essential part of any sentence.

 Try to use the correct form of Verb while speaking.

 Use simple form of Verb.

 Try to understand and to expound people what you are going to say.

 Use 1st form of Verb in Present tenses somehow with some differences.

 Use 2nd form of Verb in Past Simple Tense.

 Use 3rd form of Verb with the helping verbs has and have in all Perfect Tenses.


 Try to remember all forms of Verb and keep your vocabulary active.

 Finite Verb is also used in Present Tense.

 Gerund and Participle are alike but different in translation.

 Verb are of different kinds.

 Main Verb consists of two parts Transitive and Intransitive Verb.

 Transitive Verb always takes an object and it’s passive voice is possible.

 Intransitive Verb doesn’t have any object and it’s passive voice is impossible.

 Intransitive is called Irregular and Strong and Transitive is called Regular and Weak verb, respectively.

 Auxiliary Verbs are often called helping Verbs and they are of too different kinds.

 To Be, To Do and To Have are auxiliary Verbs sometimes they are used as helping verbs and sometimes they are used as main verbs when Have shows possession, Do comes in a Sentence as main verb as; ( I do my work with my complete attention) and To be Verbs show the state or existence of something in present time, past and future as well, as: (I am a boy = State while I am at DOMINO = existence).

 Modals are also a kind of verb that are made by us according to our use in speaking and it is used with the 1st form of verb and shows some natured or materialistic happenings.

 Can Could, May Might, Shall Should, Will Would, Must and Ought are modals

 Can shows capability to do some work in itself.

 Should is used for moral or immoral treatments or suggestions.

 Must shows some action is very necessary to do.

 Ought only emphasis on moral activities.

 May is commonly used in Aorist condition.

 May shows Condition, Permission, Purpose, Possibility and Entreaty as well.

 All modals are taken in Direct and Indirect speech and are commonly used in Narration.

 (N.B) Need and Dare are only two semi auxiliary verbs in English Grammar.

 (N.B) for understanding the Verb it is a Key Point to memorize the form of Verbs

 (N.B) Verb is work and work we do according to the time and before speaking about verb it is necessary to keep in mind that what is the exact time of work we do and if you know about the time verb will be very much easy to understand and also we describe verb in different tenses and tense is Latin “Tempus” means time so, verb and time always come together.[DOUBLEPOST=1359256727][/DOUBLEPOST]Countries and their Capitals

Hi every one,

Here lie the names of the countries of the world along with their capitals:

Name of country: Capital

Afghanistan Kabul
Albania Tirane
Algeria Algiers
Andorra Andorra la Vella
Angola Luanda
Argentina Buenos Aires
Armenia Yerevan
Aruba Oranjestad
Australia Canberra
Austria Vienna
Azerbaijan Baku
Bahamas Nassau
Bahrain Manama
Bangladesh Dhaka
Barbados Bridgetown
Belarus Minsk
Belgium Brussels
Benin Porto Novo
Bermuda Hamilton
Bhutan Thimphu
Bolivia Sucre
Bosnia-Herzegovina Sarajevo
Botswana Gaborone
Brazil Brasilia
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgaria Sofia
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou
Burma (Myanmar) Yangon (Rangoon)
Burundi Bujumbura
Cambodia Phnom Penh
Cameroon Yaounde
Canada Ottawa
Chad Ndjamena
Chile Santiago
China Beijing (Peking)
Colombia Bogota
Comoros Moroni
Congo(formerly Zaire) Brazzaville
Costa Rica San Jose
Croatia Zagreb
Cuba Havana
Cyprus Nicosia
Czech Republic Prague
Denmark Copenhagen
Ecuador Quito
Egypt Cairo
El Salvador San Salvador
Eritrea Asmara
Ethiopia Addis Ababa
Fiji Suva
Finland Helsinki
France Paris
Georgia Tbilisi
Germany Berlin
Ghana Accra
Greece Athens
Guatemala Guatemala City
Guinea-Bissau Bissau
Hong Kong Victoria (Hong Kong Island)
Hungary Budapest
Iceland Reykjavik
India New Delhi
Indonesia Jakarta
Iran Tehran
Iraq Baghdad
Ireland Dublin
Italy Rome
Japan Tokyo
Jordan Amman
Kazakhstan Astana
Kenya Nairobi
Korea, North Pyongyang
Korea, South Seoul
Kuwait Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
Lebanon Beirut
Libya Tripoli
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Macedonia Skopje
Madagascar Antananarivo
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Maldives Male
Mali Bamako
Malta Valletta
Mauritania Nouakchott
Mauritius Port Louis
Mexico Mexico City (Federal District)
Monaco Monaco
Mongolia Ulan Bator
Morocco Rabat
Mozambique Maputo
Namibia Windhoek
Nepal Kathmandu
Netherlands Amsterdam
New Zealand Wellington
Nicaragua Managua
Niger Niamey
Nigeria Abuja
Norway Oslo
Oman Muscat
Pakistan Islamabad
Panamá Panama City
Peru Lima
Philippines Manila
Poland Warsaw
Portugal Lisbon
Qatar Doha
Romania Bucharest
Russia Moscow
Rwanda Kigali
Saudi Arabia Riyadh
Senegal Dakar
Sierra Leone Freetown
Singapore Singapore
Slovakia Bratislava
Somalia Mogadishu
South Africa Pretoria (administrative capital), Cape Town (legislative capital)
Spain Madrid
Sri Lanka Colombo
Sudan Khartoum
Sweden Stockholm
Switzerland Bern
Syria Damascus
Taiwan Bangkok
Tajikistan Dushanbe
Tanzania Dar es Salaam
Thailand Bangkok
Tunisia Tunis
Turkey Ankara
Turkmenistan Ashkhabad
Uganda Kampala
Ukraine Kyiv (Kiev)
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi
United Kingdom London
Uzbekistan Tashkent
Vietnam Hanoi
Yemen Sana'a
Zimbabwe Harare (formerly Salisbury)[DOUBLEPOST=1359256919][/DOUBLEPOST]QUIZ: Around the world


1) What is common to the capitals of the following countries:
Kuwait, Djiboutil Nauru and San Marino?

2) Which country was previously known as the United Colonies?

3) Both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans bound two South American countries, one of them is Colombia, which is the other one?

4) With which European country would you generally associate tulips?

5) Name the large island at the southern tip of Italy.

6) In which continent are the Prince Charles Mountains?

7) In 1590, when the Portuguese first sighted the island of Taiwan, what did they name it?

8) If you wanted to visit the Black Forest, which country would you visit?

9) Name the second largest US state in terms of area.

10) Name a European county and its capital that begin with the letter ‘S’.

Answers

1) The countries and their capitals share the same name, e.g. the capital of Kuwait is Kuwait City

2) The United States of America

3) Chile

4) The Netherlands, (or Holland)

5) Sicily

6) These are almost completely ice-capped mountains in Antarctica

7) Formosa, which means beautiful

8) Germany

9) Texas, whose capital is Austin

10) Sweden, its capital is Stockholm[DOUBLEPOST=1359256980][/DOUBLEPOST]Interesting Facts About Food

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT FOOD

Dumplings are eaten in various forms around the world.

Chinese won ton, Italian ravioli, Jewish kreplach, and Polish pierogi
are types of dumplings filled with meat, cheese, or vegetables.

Frankfurters were named after Frankfurt (am Main), Germany.

Experts believe these sausages were first made in Germany during the Middle Ages.

About 1900, an American vendor selling cooked frankfurters supposedly
called them "hot dachshund sausages" because they resembled the long-bodied dog.
Later, the term hot dog came to be used.

Hamburger was originally called Hamburg steak. It was named after Hamburg, Germany.

Hundred-Year-Old Eggs, a delicacy in China, are preserved duck eggs.
They are cured in the shell for about six months in a mixture of ashes,
lime, salt, and tea. The curing makes the eggs taste like cheese.

Ice Cream Cones were first served at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904.
A thin, crisp waffle was rolled into a handy holder for a scoop of ice cream.

Pancakes are probably the oldest prepared food. The first pancakes were
a mixture of pounded grain and water spread on a hot stone.
Today, people enjoy such pancake variations as French crepes,
Hungarian palacintas, Indian dosa, Italian cannelloni, Jewish blintzes,
and Russian blini.Pizza, an international favorite, originated in Italy.

Pizza is the Italian word for pie.Pretzels were first made by monks in
southern Europe as a reward for students who learned their prayers.
The crossed ends of a pretzel represent praying hands.

Raw Fish is a favorite food of many people. The Japanese enjoy sashimi,
thin slices of raw seafood. Seviche is a popular Latin-American appetizer
of raw fish in lime juice. Swedes prepare gravad lox, fresh salmon with dill.

Sandwiches were named after the Earl of Sandwich, an English nobleman
of the 1700's. While playing cards, he ordered a servant to bring him
two slices of bread with a piece of roast meat between them..[DOUBLEPOST=1359257062][/DOUBLEPOST]Weird Facts

Mosquito repellents don't repel. They hide you. The spray blocks the mosquito's sensors so they don't know you're there.


Dentists have recommended that a toothbrush be kept at least 6 feet away from a toilet to avoid airborne particles resulting from the
flush.


The liquid inside young coconuts can be used as substitute for blood plasma.

No piece of paper can be folded in half more than 7 times.

Donkeys kill more people annually than plane crashes.

The king of hearts is the only king without a moustache.

Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise.

Apples, not caffeine, are more efficient at waking you up in the morning.

The plastic things on the end of shoelaces are called aglets.

Most dust particles in your house are made from dead skin.

The first owner of the Marlboro Company died of lung cancer.

Pearls melt in vinegar.

The three most valuable brand names on earth: Marlboro, Coca-Cola, and Budweiser, in that order.

It is possible to lead a cow upstairs...but not downstairs.

A duck's quack doesn't echo and no one knows why.

Turtles can breathe through their butts.


On average, 100 people choke to death on ball-point pens every year.

Elephants are the only animals that can't jump.

Women blink nearly twice as much as men.

It's physically impossible for you to lick your elbow.

The Main Library at Indiana University sinks over an inch every year because when it was built, engineers failed to take into account the weight of all the books that would occupy the building.


A snail can sleep for three years.

No word in the English language rhymes with "MONTH."

Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing.

All polar bears are left handed.

A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out.
[DOUBLEPOST=1359257251][/DOUBLEPOST]Top 20 achivements of 20th century

Following are the top 20 achivements of 20th century, that changed the world.

1. Electrification
2. Automobile
3. Airplane
4. Water Supply and Distribution
5. Electronics
6. Radio and Television
7. Agricultural Mechanization
8. Computers
9. Telephone
10. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration
11. Highways
12. Spacecraft
13. Internet
14. Imaging
15. Household Appliances
16. Health Technologies
17. Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies
18. Laser and Fiber Optics
19. Nuclear Technologies
20. High-performance Materials[DOUBLEPOST=1359257299][/DOUBLEPOST]
The word 'art' is derived from the Latin for skill

Ada Lovelace Who wrote the world's first computer program.

Chess is originated from India.

Endocrine system systems controls hormones.

Abraham Lincoln the US president was shot 5 days after the end of the American Civil War.

Polo has periods of play called 'chukkas'.

Britannica encyclopedia was first published in 1768.

The word 'science' comes from the Greek for to know?

The language with the most native speakers is Mandarin Chinese.

carburettor mixes air and petrol (gas) for the internal combustion engine.[DOUBLEPOST=1359257436][/DOUBLEPOST]Interesting & Amazing Facts

Interesting & Amazing Facts

Technology


Aircraft Carrier

An aircraft carrier gets about 6 inches per gallon of fuel.

Airplanes

* The first United States coast to coast airplane flight occurred in 1911 and took 49 days.
* A Boeing 747s wingspan is longer than the Wright brother's first flight (120ft).

Aluminum

The Chinese were using aluminum to make things as early as 300 AD Western civilization didn't rediscover aluminum until 1827.

Automobile

George Seldon received a patent in 1895 - for the automobile. Four years later, George sold the rights for $200,000.

Coin Operated Machine

The first coin operated machine ever designed was a holy-water dispenser that required a five-drachma piece to operate. It was the brainchild of the Greek scientist Hero in the first century AD.

Compact Discs

Compact discs read from the inside to the outside edge, the reverse of how a record works.

Computers

* ENIAC, the first electronic computer, appeared 50 years ago. The original ENIAC was about 80 feet long, weighed 30 tons, had 17,000 tubes. By comparison, a desktop computer today can store a million times more information than an ENIAC, and 50,000 times faster.
* From the smallest microprocessor to the biggest mainframe, the average American depends on over 264 computers per day.
* The first "modern" computer (i.e., general-purpose and program-controlled) was built in 1941 by Konrad Zuse. Since there was a war going on, he applied to the German government for funding to build his machines for military use, but was turned down because the Germans did not expect the war to last beyond Christmas.
* The computer was launched in 1943, more than 100 years after Charles Babbage designed the first programmable device. Babbage dropped his idea after he couldn't raise capital for it. In 1998, the Science Museum in London, UK, built a working replica of the Babbage machine, using the materials and work methods available at Babbage's time. It worked just as Babbage had intended.

Electric Chair

The electric chair was invented by a dentist, Alfred Southwick.

E-Mail

The first e-mail was sent over the Internet in 1972.

Eye Glasses

The Chinese invented eyeglasses. Marco Polo reported seeing many pairs worn by the Chinese as early as 1275, 500 years before lens grinding became an art in the West.

Glass

If hot water is suddenly poured into a glass that glass is more apt to break if it is thick than if it is thin. This is why test tubes are made of thin glass.

Hard Hats

Construction workers hard hats were first invented and used in the building of the Hoover Dam in 1933.

Hoover Dam

The Hoover Dam was built to last 2,000 years. The concrete in it will not even be fully cured for another 500 years.

Limelight

Limelight was how we lit the stage before electricity was invented. Basically, illumination was produced by heating blocks of lime until they glowed.

Mobile (Cellular) Phones

As much as 80% of microwaves from mobile phones are absorbed by your head.

Nuclear Power

Nuclear ships are basically steamships and driven by steam turbines. The reactor just develops heat to boil the water.

Oil

The amount of oil that is used worldwide in one year is doubling every ten years. If that rate of increase continues and if the world were nothing but oil, all the oil would be used up in 400 years.

Radio Waves

Radio waves travel so much faster than sound waves that a broadcast voice can be heard sooner 18,000 km away than in the back of the room in which it originated.

Rickshaw

The rickshaw was invented by the Reverend Jonathan Scobie, an American Baptist minister living in Yokohama, Japan, built the first model in 1869 in order to transport his invalid wife. Today it remains a common mode of transportation in the Orient.

Ships & Boats

* The cruise liner, Queen Elizabeth 2, moves only six inches for each gallon of diesel that it burns.
* The world's oldest surviving boat is a simple 10 feet long dugout dated to 7400 BC. It was discovered in Pesse Holland in the Netherlands.
* Rock drawings from the Red Sea site of Wadi Hammamat, dated to around 4000 BC show that Egyptian boats were made from papyrus and reeds.
* The world's earliest known plank-built ship, made from cedar and sycamore wood and dated to 2600 BC, was discovered next to the Great Pyramid in 1952.
* The Egyptians created the first organized navy in 2300 BC.
* Oar-powered ships were developed by the Sumerians in 3500 BC.
* Sails were first used by the Phoenicians around 2000 BC.

Silicon Chip

A chip of silicon a quarter-inch square has the capacity of the original 1949 ENIAC computer, which occupied a city block.

Skyscraper
The term skyscraper was first used way back in 1888 to describe an 11-story building.

Sound

Sound travels 15 times faster through steel than through the air.

Telephones

There are more than 600 million telephone lines today, yet almost half the world's population has never made a phone call.

Television

Scottish inventor John Logie Baird gave the first public demonstration of television in 1926 in Soho, London. Ten years later there were only 100 TV sets in the world.

Traffic Lights

Traffic lights were used before the advent of the motorcar. In 1868, a lantern with red and green signals was used at a London intersection to control the flow of horse buggies and pedestrians.

Transistors

More than a billion transistors are manufactured... every second.

VCR's

The first VCR, made in 1956, was the size of a piano.

Windmill

The windmill originated in Iran in AD 644. It was used to grind grain.

World Trade Center

The World Trade Center towers were designed to collapse in a pancake-like fashion, instead of simply falling over on their sides. This design feature saved hundreds, perhaps thousands of lives on Sept. 11, 2001, when they were destroyed by terrorists.
 

rickardbriggs

Newbie
Jan 31, 2013
24
3
3
Thanks for sharing such an interesting post with us.
Mink me are a new beauty service in Australia. We offer a wide rang of eyelash extensions, beauty supplies, beauty trend, eyelash extensions, buy eyelashes available at minkme.co.au

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Semi Permanent Eyelashes
 

Hoorain

*In search of Oyster Pearls*
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Dec 31, 2009
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About Pakistan!

1. Pakistan's first coin was issued on 3rd January 1948.
2. Pakistan's standard time was suggested by Proffessor Muhammad Anwar.
3. Pakistan's first Stamp ticket was issued on 09-07-1948.
4. Maoulana Mazhar-ud-din was the first person who gave the tital "Quid-e-Azam to Mr. Jinnah fist time.
5. Quid-e-Azam's mother tongue was "Gujrati"
6. Khawaja Nazim-ud-din was the only person in pakistan history who was the second Prime Minister of Pakistan & also Secon Governer General of Pakistan.
7. The total Area of the Capital of Pakistan "Islamabad" is 907 sq Km.
8. The Height of Minar-e-Pakistan is 196 ft and 4 inch.
9. Sir Victor Turner signed first time on Pakistan's currency notes.
10. Quaid-e-Azam was born on Thrusday.
11. Quaid-e-Azam was died on Saturday.
12. Pakistan's National Flag was prepared by Ameer-ud-din Qadwai.
13. Abdur-rehaman Chugtai was made the design of Pakistan's first Stamp Ticket.
14. Pakistan's National Anthem's Compostion was accepted on 21 August 1949.
15. There were 3542 Post Offices in Pakitan at the time of its Creation.
16. Hari Pur is famous of having Telephone Industry.
17. Mr. Mirat Khan prepared the map of Minar-e-Pakistan.
18. Quaid-e-Azam took an oath as Governer General of Pakistan from Mr. Justice Mian Abdur Rasheed.
19. The height of all 4 Minars of Badshai Mosque are 177 fts.
20. The National Anthem was sung first time on 13 August 1954 in the voice of Mr. Hafeez Jhalandari.
 

lecollezioni

Regular Member
Mar 12, 2013
121
62
78
sardinia
Assalam o ALaikum
In this thread we will keep Sharing Genral nowledge Questions and answers INSHA'ALLAH!
[DOUBLEPOST=1351388187][/DOUBLEPOST]Q: Which composer wrote The Water Music?

A: Handel

Q: What colour does acid turn Litmus paper?
A: Red

Q: What's the largest Scandinavian country?
A: Sweden

Q: What was Mickey Mouse's original name?
A: Mortimer Mouse

Q: Which metal do you get from bauxite?
A: Aluminium

Q: Which animal produces the biggest baby?
A: Blue Whale

Q: In Pop music, which two herbs go with 'Parsley & Sage'?
A: Rosemary and Thyme - Scarborough fair

Q: What was the name of the Benedictine monk who legend has it invented Champagne?
A: Dom Perignon

Q: In which Country is Auschwitz (Birkenau)?
A: Poland

Q: Who was Leonardo di Caprio's co-star in Titanic?
A: Kate Winslett

Q: Acid rain is composed mainly of the oxides of two elements. Give either.
A: Sulphur or Nitrogen

Q: What sort of creature is a bustard?
A: A bird

Q: What is calcium carbonate normally known as?
A: Chalk

Q: Who commanded the Allied forces, which invaded Europe on D-Day?
A: Dwight Eisenhower

Q: Who holds the record as being Britain's youngest ever Formula 1 Driver?
A: Jensen Button

Q: What word do we use to describe the Asexual reproduction of a genetic carbon copy of an animal or plant?
A: Clone

Q: Which chemical element has the shortest name - 3 letters?
A: Tin

Q: What is the state capital of Alaska?
A: Juneau

Q: How many holes are there in a ten pin bowling ball?
A: 3

Q: Which land did Puff The Magic Dragon live in?
A: Honalee


[DOUBLEPOST=1351388208][/DOUBLEPOST] No piece of paper can be folded more than 7 times.

* The first product to have a bar code was Wrigley's gum.
* Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise.
* Apples, not caffeine, are more efficien at waking you up in the morning
* The first owner of the Marlboro company died of lung cancer.
* The Mona Lisa has no eyebrows. It was the fashion in Renaissance Florence to shave them off.
* Walt Disney was afraid of mice.
* The inventor of the flushing toilet was Thomas Crapper.
* The average bed is home to over 6 billion dust mites.
* The cigarette lighter was invented before the match.
* The average chocolate bar has 8 insect legs in it.
* Right-handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people do.
* Its impossible to smoke oneself to death with weed. You won't be able to retain enough motor control and consciousness to do so after such a large amount.
* Every drop of seawater contains approximately 1 billion gold atoms.
* The US national anthem actually has three verses, but everyone just knows the first one.
* During World War II, IBM built the computers the Nazis used to manage their death/concentration camps.
* The total combined weight of the worlds ant population is heavier than the weight of the human population.
* The deadliest war in history excluding World War II was a civil war in China in the 1850s in which the rebels were led by a man who thought he was the brother of Jesus Christ.
* Just about 3 people are born every second, and about 1.3333 people die every second. The result is about a 2 and 2/3 net increase of people every second. Almost 10 people more live on this Earth now, than before you finished reading this.
* The number of people alive on earth right now is higher than the number of all the people that have died, Ever.[DOUBLEPOST=1351388232][/DOUBLEPOST] The electric chair was invented by a dentist.

* The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.
*Banging your head against a wall uses an average of 900 calories an hour.
* On average, people fear spiders more than they do death
* "I am ." is the shortest complete sentence in the English language.
* The longest word in the English language is 1909 letters long and it refers to a distinct part of DNA.
* It's impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.
* Feb 1865 is the only month in recorded history not to have a full moon.
* You can't kill yourself by holding your breath.
* Americans on the average eat 18 acres of pizza every day.
* Every time you lick a stamp,you're consuming 1/10 of a calorie.
* Leonardo Da Vinci invented the scissors
* In the last 4000 years, no new animals have been domesticated.
* The most common name in the world is Mohammed.
* The cruise liner, Queen Elizabeth II, moves only six inches for each gallon of diesel that it burns.
* Michael Jordan makes more money from Nike annually than all of the Nike factory workers in Malaysia combined.
* One of the reasons marijuana is illegal today is because cotton growers in the 30's lobbied against hemp farmers they saw it as competition.
* You know that you are more likely to be killed by a champagne cork than by a poisonous spider
* Only one person in two billion will live to be 116 or older.
* There are 2 credit cards for every person in the US.
* If you yelled for 8 years, 7 months and 6 days, you would have produced enough sound energy to heat one cup of coffee.

* If you fart consistently for 6 years and 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb.

* Cats have over one hundred vocal sounds,dogs only have about ten.
* Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing[DOUBLEPOST=1351388270][/DOUBLEPOST] The Bible, the world's most-selling book, is also the world's most shoplifted book.

* Your tongue is the only muscle in your body that is attached at only one end.
* More than 1,000 different languages are spoken on the continent of Africa.
* In the U.S.A over eleven thousand people (up until the end of 2003) have visited a tortilla chip that appears to have the face of Jesus Christ burned into it?
* Buckingham Palace in England has over six hundred rooms.
* There was once an undersea post office in the Bahamas.
* Abraham Lincoln's mother died when she drank the milk of a cow that grazed on poisonous snakeroot.
* After the death of Albert Einstein his brain was removed by a pathologist and put in a jar for future study.
* TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only
on one row of the keyboard.
* There are two words in the English language that have all five vowels in
order: "abstemious" and "facetious."
* There are more chickens than people in the world.
* The winter of 1932 was so cold that Niagara Falls froze completely solid.
* The cruise liner, QE2, moves only six inches for each gallon of diesel
that it burns.
* Maine is the only American state whose name is just one syllable.
* Butterflies taste with their feet.
* There are only three words in the English language which end in "dous":
tremendous, horrendous, and stupendous.
* "Dreamt" is the only English word that ends in the letters "mt".
* The sentence: "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" uses every
letter of the alphabet.

* A typical bed usually houses over 6 billion dust mites.
* The opposite sides of a dice cube always add up to seven.
* A person with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet
* The loudest sound produced by any animal is 188 decibels. The animal is the African Elephant.
* In ancient Egypt, Priests plucked every hair from their bodies, including their eyebrows and eyelashes.
* The word four has four letters. In the English language there is no other number whose number of letters is equal to its value.
* No piece of square dry paper can be folded more than 7 times in half.
* Chocolate can kill dogs. Chocolate affects a dog's heart and nervous system; a few ounces are enough to kill a small dog.
* There are more than twice as many kangaroos as people in Australia.
ALso check attachment for 200 more Questions and answers!
awesome n i hope to see more informative threads like this one
 
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lecollezioni

Regular Member
Mar 12, 2013
121
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sardinia
INSHAALLAH
u can also share informative material if u want!
yeah will do that for sure...[DOUBLEPOST=1364215735][/DOUBLEPOST]one more thing always write In Sha ALLAH like this us tarha matlab galat nikalta hai maine khud kal dekha hai yeh... tell it to others as well...[DOUBLEPOST=1364215852][/DOUBLEPOST]i guess i should post it as a thread so that everyone can read it...
 
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Hoorain

*In search of Oyster Pearls*
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Dec 31, 2009
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Interesting General Knowledge Questions & answers


1. Which metal is heavier, silver or gold?
2. How many legs do butterflies have?
3. Which is the country with the most people?
4. Which state is the biggest in the US?
5. Which country has the largest area of land?
6. Which is the country hosting the 2008 Olympic Games?
7. Which indoor sport is the most popular in the US?
8. Which golf player's mother is from Thailand?
9. What is Aurora Borealis commonly known as?
10. Which is the non-contagious disease that is the most common in the world?
11. Which was the album the Beatles recorded the last time together?
12. Which instrument did Miles Davis, the jazz musician, play?
13. What is the sport in which you could get into a headlock?
14. In which country was golf first played?
15. Which is the sport where you could be out 'leg before wicket' or 'hit a six'?
16. When did baseball originate in the US?
17. Which is the sport wherein you would use a 'sand iron'?
18. What is the largest mammal in the world?
19. Which is the country where reggae music originated?
20. Who was the creator of Jeeves and Wooster?
21. Who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel?
22. Who was the writer of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland?
23. After which famous person was the teddy bear named?
24. Which is the smallest ocean in the world?
25. What is the rhino?s horn made of?

Answers


1. Gold
2. Six
3. China
4. Alaska
5. Russia
6. China
7. Basketball
8. Tiger Woods
9. Northern Lights
10. Tooth Decay
11. Abbey Road
12. Trumpet
13. Wrestling
14. Scotland
15. Cricket
16. 19th Century
17. Golf
18. Blue Whale
19. Jamaica
20. P.G. Wodehouse
21. Michelangelo
22. Lewis Carroll
23. Theodore Roosevelt
24. Arctic Ocean
25. Hair
[DOUBLEPOST=1364435529][/DOUBLEPOST]
General Knowledge Question answers


01 The first Prime minister of Bangladesh was Mujibur Rehman
02 The longest river in the world is the Nile
03 The longest highway in the world is the Trans-Canada
04 The longest highway in the world has a length of About 8000 km
05 The highest mountain in the world is the Everest
06 The country that accounts for nearly one third of the total teak production of the world is Myanmar
07 The biggest desert in the world is the Sahara desert
08 The largest coffee growing country in the world is Brazil
09 The country also known as "country of Copper" is Zambia
10 The name given to the border which separates Pakistan and Afghanistan is Durand line
11 The river Volga flows out into the Caspian sea
12 The coldest place on the earth is Verkoyansk in Siberia
13 The country which ranks second in terms of land area is Canada
14 The largest Island in the Mediterranean sea is Sicily
15 The river Jordan flows out into the Dead sea
16 The biggest delta in the world is the Ganges Delta
17 The capital city that stands on the river Danube is Belgrade
18 The Japanese call their country as Nippon
19 The length of the English channel is 564 kilometres
20 The world's oldest known city is Damascus
21 The city which is also known as the City of Canals is Venice
22 The country in which river Wangchu flows is Myanmar
23 The biggest island of the world is Greenland
24 The city which is the biggest centre for manufacture of automobiles in the world is Detroit, USA
25 The country which is the largest producer of manganese in the world is China & South Africa
26 The country which is the largest producer of rubber in the world is Malaysia
27 The country which is the largest producer of tin in the world is China
28 The river which carries maximum quantity of water into the sea is the Amazon River
29 The city which was once called the `Forbidden City' was Peking
30 The country called the Land of Rising Sun is Japan
31 Mount Everest was named after Sir George Everest
32 The volcano Vesuvius is located in Italy
33 The country known as the Sugar Bowl of the world is Cuba
34 The length of the Suez Canal is 162.5 kilometers
35 The lowest point on earth is The coastal area of Dead sea
36 The Gurkhas are the original inhabitants of Nepal
37 The largest ocean of the world is the Pacific ocean
38 The largest bell in the world is the Tsar Kolkol at Kremlin, Moscow
39 The biggest stadium in the world is the Strahov Stadium, Prague
40 The world's largest diamond producing country is South Africa
41 Australia was discovered by James Cook
42 The first Governor General of Pakistan is Mohammed Ali Jinnah
43 Dublin is situated at the mouth of river Liffey
44 The earlier name of New York city was New Amsterdam
45 The Eifel tower was built by Alexander Eiffel
46 The Red Cross was founded by Jean Henri Durant
47 The country which has the greatest population density is Monaco
48 The national flower of Britain is Rose
49 Niagara Falls was discovered by Louis Hennepin
50 The national flower of Italy is Lily
51 The national flower of China is Narcissus
52 The permanent secretariat of the SAARC is located at Kathmandu
53 The gateway to the Gulf of Iran is Strait of Hormuz
54 The first Industrial Revolution took place in England
55 World Environment Day is observed on 5th June
56 The first Republican President of America was Abraham Lincoln
57 The country famous for Samba dance is Brazil
58 The name of Alexander's horse was Beucephalus
59 Singapore was founded by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles
60 The famous British one-eyed Admiral was Nelson
61 The earlier name of Sri Lanka was Ceylon
62 The UNO was formed in the year 1945
63 UNO stands for United Nations Organization
64 The independence day of South Korea is celebrated on 15th August
65 `Last Judgement' was the first painting of an Italian painter named Michelangelo
66 Paradise Regained was written by John Milton
67 The first President of Egypt was Mohammed Nequib
68 The first man to reach North Pole was Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary
69 The most famous painting of Pablo Picasso was Guermica
70 The primary producer of newsprint in the world is Canada
71 The first explorer to reach the South Pole was Cap. Ronald Amundson
72 The person who is called the father of modern Italy is G.Garibaldi
73 World literacy day is celebrated on 8th September
74 The founder of modern Germany is Bismarck
75 The country known as the land of the midnight sun is Norway
76 The place known as the Roof of the world is Tibet
77 The founder of the Chinese Republic was San Yat Sen
78 The first Pakistani to receive the Nobel Prize was Abdul Salam
79 The first woman Prime Minister of Britain was Margaret Thatcher
80 The first Secretary General of the UNO was Trygve Lie
81 The sculptor of the statue of Liberty was Frederick Auguste Bartholdi
82 The port of Baku is situated in Azerbaijan
83 John F Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
84 The largest river in France is Loire
85 The Queen of England who married her brother-in-law was Catherine of Aragon
86 The first black person to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize was Ralph Johnson Bunche
87 The first British University to admit women for degree courses was London University
88 The principal export of Jamaica is Sugar
89 New York is popularly known as the city of Skyscrapers
90 Madagascar is popularly known as the Island of Cloves
91 The country known as the Land of White Elephant is Thailand
92 The country known as the Land of Morning Calm is Korea
93 The country known as the Land of Thunderbolts is Bhutan
94 The highest waterfalls in the world is the Salto Angel Falls, Venezuela
95 The largest library in the world is the United States Library of Congress, Washington DC
96 The author of Harry Potter Books is JK Rowling
97 Nickname of New York city is Big Apple
98 What do you call a group of sheep? A Flock of Sheep
99 In which sport do players take long and short corners? Hockey
100 Who was the youngest President of the USA? Theodore Roosevelt
101 How many legs do butterflies have? 6 Legs & 2 Pair of Wings
 

Hoorain

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A Fairly Difficult General Knowledge Quiz
1
In which country did the ‘sauna’ originate?

2
On which day and which year did America declare itself an independent country?

3
Which is lighter, gold or plastic?

4
What should you say in English if someone sneezes?.

5
How many cents are there in a Australian dollar?

6
Who wrote ‘Animal Farm’?

7
Name five methods of transport?.

8
Name ten countries where English is an official language.

9
Name ten parts of the body lower than the neck.

10
Which explorer discovered the sea-route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope?

11
What is the currency of Greece?

12
Which country is popularly called ‘The Land of the Maple Leaf’?

13
In Britain who would you give a tip to?

14
Name three festivals celebrated in English-speaking countries?

15
“A good husband should be deaf and a good wife blind”. What are these sayings called?

16
What do English people say before a meal?

17
Which U.S President was assassinated in 1865?

18
Which is longer the Danube or Volga river?

19
When did England last win the football world cup?

20
Which planet is named after the Roman god of war?

ANSWERS

1 - Finland

2 - 4th July 1776

3 - Plastic

4 - Bless you.

5 - 100

6 - George Orwell

7 - Train, car, coach, bus, tram, ship, boat, motorcycle etc.

8 - England, Ireland, USA, Canada, India, Kenya, Singapore, Barbados, South Africa, Pakistan etc.

9 - Chest, leg, arm, shoulder, foot, knee, fingers, toes, thigh, shin, ankle etc.

10 - Vasco de Gama

11 - Drachma

12 - Canada

13 -Waiter/Waitress, taxi driver, hairdresser

14 - Christmas, Easter, St. Valentines day, New Years day, Thanksgiving day etc.

15 - Proverbs

16 - Nothing!

17 - Abraham Lincoln

18 - Volga

19 - 1966

20 - Mars
[DOUBLEPOST=1364435668][/DOUBLEPOST]
Random Questions and Answers:

Which is bigger, a lake or an ocean? ocean
Which country has the most people? china.
What is the capital city of Norway? oslo
What is the biggest state in the U.S.A.? alaska
Which country has the biggest land area? russia
What sport is played at Wimbledon? tennis
In which country were the 2008 Olympic Games held? china
What country does the football player Romario come from? brazil
What is the most popular indoor sport in the U.S.A.? basketball
In which sport was Muhammad Ali the world champion? boxing
Which famous golf player's mother comes from Thailand? tiger woods
Blood is filtered by which pair of organs? kidney
Which planet is the fifth from the sun? jupiter
Who developed the theory of relativity? albert einstein
Which chemical element is represented by the symbol N? nitrogen
In which organelle of a living cell is DNA found? nucleus
Which travel faster, light or sound waves? light.
What is longest running race in the Olympic Games called? the marathen
Who won the 2003 British Open golf tournament? ben curtis
In snooker, what is the colour of the last ball potted? black
What nationality is the tennis player Lleyton Hewitt? australian
In which sport can you throw a 'curve ball'? baseball
Which team won the 2003 Formula One car racing championship? ferrari
 

Hoorain

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Find Answers of these G.K Questions!


1. Name Germany's two primary allies of World War II.
2. Define the word "Consecutive".
3. Name all of the continents.
4. What is the square root of 144?
5. What was the primary reason for the American Civil War?
6. What is the official language of the United States?

7. What are the two primary languages of Canada?
8. What is the cube root of 27?
9. If 142=X. What is the value of "X"?
10. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
11. What was the last state to join the United States?
12. From what country did the United States purchase the land known as the Louisiana Purchase?
13. What form of government did Germany have before and during World War II?
14. What large body of water borders Israel?
15. Name four countries in Europe.
16. Write the molecular make-up of Carbon Monoxide.
17. Give the scientific definition of "matter".
18. Define the word "Infinite".
19. Where in nature is chlorophyll found?
20. How many states are there in the United States of America?
21. When was the Declaration of Independence first signed?
22. Name the last nine Presidents of the United States in descending order.
23. What is the significance of October 29, 1929?
24. What is the largest state in the United States?
25. Name the first three Presidents.
26. Name the President during the American Civil War.
27. What is the cube root of 8?
28. What incident caused the United States entered World War II?
29. How many sides does a trapezoid have?
30. What was the new weapon of mass destruction in World War I?
31. Name four countries on the South American continent.
32. Who invented the electric light bulb?
33. Who invented the phonograph?
34. What is the most powerful weapon in the United States' military arsenal?
35. What is the primary power source of a modern submarine?
36. Name the three largest countries in North America.
37. Name three countries that were allied with the U.S. during World War II.
38. Name three forms of communication.
39. Who theorized the equation "E=mc2"?
40. Name four countries in Asia.
41. Name the planets in order starting with the one closest to the Sun.
42. Name two literary works by William Shakespeare.
43. How far is the Sun from the Earth?
44. What is the largest desert in China?
45. Name the Oceans of the world.
46. What is stated in the 1st amendment to the Constitution?
47. What are the first ten amendments to the Constitution called?
48. Name five countries on the African continent.
49. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
50. When was the war of 1812 fought?
51. What is the highest mountain in the world?
52. Which President was elected to four terms as President of the United States?
53. If 1002=X. What is the value of "X"?
54. What is stated in the 2nd amendment to the constitution?
55. What is 100% of 1286?
56. What year was President John Kennedy assassinated?
57. What city and country were the targets of the first and second atomic bombs?
58. What is the official language of Brazil?
59. If you take a test with 5000 questions, how many would you miss in order to score 72%?
60. Within 5%, how much of the earth's surface is covered by water?
61. What four States in the United States come together to meet at a single point?
62. How many Vice-Presidents does the President of the United States have?
63. What are the three branches of the United States government?
64. Where is the Bering Strait?
65. What is 18% of 200?
66. Name three states of "matter".
67. When was the American Civil War fought?
68. Write the equation for determining the area of a circle.
69. Write the equation for determining the area of a square?
70. Which war did the dropping of the Atomic bomb bring to an end?
71. What war were Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles with nuclear warheads first used?
72. Where is the Statue of Liberty located?
73. What did the Lewis and Clark expedition hope to find?
74. What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
75. How many feet are there in a mile?
76. What will lower the freezing point of water?
77. What form of government does the United States have?
78. What state is the well-known city of "Anchorage" located?
79. How many inches are there in a meter?
80. Define the word "Capitalism".
81. Where is/was the World Trade Center located?
82. On what continent is the country of India located?
83. Where is the longest unguarded border between two countries?
84. What happens to a volume of gas as it is compressed?
85. What is necessary for sound to travel?
86. What is the speed of light?
87. What are the two most populated countries on Earth?
88. Write the mathematical equation for determining the circumference of a circle.
89. Define a "Right Triangle".
90. What does the Vice-President do when the Senate is in session?
91. What is needed for a fire to exist?
92. What is another word for "Iron Oxide"?
93. What color is oxygen?
94. What is an electron?
95. What causes rain?
96. How many states were there when the United States declared its independence?
97. What is the most populated city in the United States?
98. What is the job of a lawyer?
99. What is the sq/ft of a room that measures 720 inches × 560 inches?
100. What will change the boiling point of water?
101. How many meters are there in a Kilometer?
102. What is an "alloy"?
103. What will happen to a metal rod when it is heated?
104. What is the periodic table?
105. What is the mathematical equation for "speed"?
106. Define the term "Light Year"?
107. Why does smoke rise?
108. Give the chemical make-up of water.
109. What is the lightest element?
110. If 4.5 × 0.5= X. What is the value of "X"?
111. What large military action was the United States involved in during the 1960s?
112. Are X-rays visible light?
113. What is the measurement of electrical current?
114. What percentage of the atmosphere is oxygen?
115. What is the measurement of light intensity?
116. What colors are used to make the color "black"?
117. Why does a compass needle point North?
118. What is measurement of electrical power?
119. If -52 + 52 = X, what is the value of "X"?
120. Name a state where the Rocky Mountains are located?
121. What is a verb?
122. How many Senators are there from each state?
123. What is the minimum age to run for President of the United States?
124. What war was called "The war to end all wars"?
125. Name a single-cell organism.
126. Define the word "Astronomy".
127. What is a noun?
128. To the fourth decimal point, what is the value of π?
129. What bird is the symbol of the United States?
130. What is the largest planet in our solar system?
131. How many quarters are there in $10.00?
132. How many numerals are there?
133. What continent is the country of Bosnia located?
134. Who was the 16th President?
135. What city is the Library of Congress located?
136. What primary method does the government use to raise money?
137. To which planets does the Space Shuttle fly?
138. What year did man first land on the moon?
139. In what year did World War II end?
140. What is the largest animal in the world?
 

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*In search of Oyster Pearls*
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141. Lightning is an example of which kind of electricity?
142. What effect does the sun heating the surface of the Earth have on weather conditions?
143. Are there currents in the oceans?
144. How fast does the Earth rotate on its axis?
145. Define the word "Invertebrate".
146. Does the color "Black" absorb light better that the color "Red"?
147. What is 550% of 100?
148. Can a liquid, as a rule, be compressed?
149. What is the responsibility of the "IRS"?
150. What do the initials "U.S.M.C." stand for?
151. What year did the Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock?
152. Who invented the first self-propelled boat?
153. Who was Adolf Hitler?
154. Who was Joseph Stalin?
155. Who shot President Abraham Lincoln?
156. What decade was the Korean War?
157. Who is credited with inventing the Telephone?
158. What great achievement did Neil Armstrong complete?
159. What is the basic ingredient of paper?
160. Define "FBI".
161. If 129 ÷ 3 = X, what is the value of "X"?
162. Name two types of currency.
163. Is steel a pure element?
165. What type of heavenly body is the Sun?
166. Does the moon produce its own light?
167. Of all of the elements on the periodic table, which one is the best conductor of heat?
168. What was "D-Day"?
169. What is a "Solar Eclipse"?
170. What is the value of "0"?
171. Define the term "Bounced Check"?
172. Aircraft are made primarily of which type of metal?
173. Define the word "Biology".
174. What are the two major political parties in the United States today?
175. What does an engineer do?
176. What is a "radio"?
177. What was the primary reason the Pilgrims came to America?
178. What kind of information does a book called an "Atlas" have?
179. What act of aggression brought the United States into World War II?
180. Name two methods of producing electricity.
181. What kind of reaction allows a battery to produce electricity?
182. What makes terrorism effective?
183. If 112 = X, what is the value of "X"?
184. Define "CIA".
185. Is hydrogen flammable?
186. Who was J. Edgar Hoover?
187. Was an assassination attempt ever made against President Ronald Reagan?
188. Is cancer a contagious disease?
189. Who led the first expedition to circumnavigate the Earth?
190. Who is on the front of the $5.00 bill?
191. How old does a citizen of the United States have to be to vote in an election?
192. What year did the United States enter World War II?
193. What was the first country to develop and use Biological weapons?
194. What is the primary disadvantage of a nuclear powerplant when compared to a fossil fuel powerplant?
195. How many pounds are there in 10 tons?
196. What is an adjective?
197. Who was General Robert E. Lee?
198. Define the word "Independence".
199. Define the word "Freedom".
200. Is a squid considered to be a vertebrate?
201. How many ounces are there in a quart?
202. What are the three different methods of heat transference?
203. What kind of information does a book called a "Thesaurus" have?
204. What is an "incline plane"?
205. What is the significance of July 20, 1969?
206. How long is a presidential term?
207. Before President Grant became President of the United States, he was famous for doing what?
208. What are the two houses of Congress?
209. What President gave authorization to drop the atomic bomb on Japan?
210. Which has more heat, a nail that has been heated to white-hot state or a bathtub full of lukewarm water?
211. Concerning the Nixon administration, what was "Watergate"?
212. Who first discovered the moons around Jupiter?
213. What kind of government does Cuba have?
214. Who was Louis Pasteur?
215. What function do the kidneys perform in the human body?
216. What President served two non-consecutive terms as President?
217. Define "Socialism"
218. Define "Communism"
219. Define "Democracy"
220. Who was the first President of the United States to be impeached?[DOUBLEPOST=1364435882][/DOUBLEPOST]
G.K Quiz


46. A dolphin can hold its breath for 5 to 8 minutes at a time
47. Bats can detect warmth of an animal from about 16 cm away using its “nose-leaf”.
48. Bats can also find food up to 18 ft. away and get information about the type of insect using their sense of echolocation.
49. The eyes of the chameleon can move independently & can see in two differentdirections at the same time.

50. Cockroach: Can detect movement as small as 2,000 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom.
51. Dragonfly: Eye contains 30,000 lenses.
52. Pig’s Tongue contains 15,000 taste buds. For comparison, the human tongue has 9,000 taste buds.
53. The number system was invented by India. Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero.
54. Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.
55. Earth weighs 5,972,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons
56. Like fingerprints, everyone’s tongue print is different.
57. A duck’s quack doesn’t echo anywhere
58. Man is the only animal who’ll eat with an enemy
59. The average woman uses about her height in lipstick every five years.
60. The first Christmas was celebrated on December 25, AD 336 in Rome.
61. A Cockroach will live nine days without its head, before it starves to death.
62. A chimpanzee can learn to recognize itself in a mirror, but monkeys can’t
63. A rat can last longer without water than a camel can
64. About 10% of the world’s population is left-handed
65. Dolphins sleep with one eye open
66. Snakes have no external ears. Therefore, they do not hear the music of a “snake charmer”. Instead, they are probably responding to the movements of the snake charmer and the flute. However, sound waves may travel through bones in their heads to the middle ear.
67. Many spiders have eight eyes.
68. The tongue of snakes has no taste buds. Instead, the tongue is used to bring smells and tastes into the mouth. Smells and tastes are then detected in two pits, called “Jacobson’s organs”, on the roof of their mouths. Receptors in the pits then transmit smell and taste information to the brain.
69. Birds don’t sweat
70. The highest kangaroo leap recorded is 10 ft and the longest is 42 ft
71. Flamingo tongues were eaten common at Roman feasts
72. The smallest bird in the world is the Hummingbird. It weighs 1oz
73. The bird that can fly the fastest is called a White it can fly up to 95 miles per hour.
74. The oldest living thing on earth is 12,000 years old. It is the flowering shrubs called creosote bushes in the Mojave Desert

75. Tea is said to have been discovered in 2737 BC by a Chinese emperor when some tea leaves accidentally blew into a pot of boiling water.
76. A person can live without food for about a month, but only about a week without water. If the amount of water in your body is reduced by just 1%, one will feel thirsty. If it’s reduced by 10%, one will die.
77. Along with its length neck, the giraffe has a very long tongue — more than a foot and a half long. A giraffe can clean its ears with its 21-inch tongue
78. Ostriches can kick with tremendous force, but only forward. Don’t Mess with them
79. An elephant can smell water three miles away
80. If you were to remove your skin, it would weigh as much as 5 pounds

81. A hippopotamus can run faster than a man
82. India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history
83. The world’s known tallest man is Robert Pershing Wadlow. The giraffe is 5.49m (18 ft.), the man is 2.55m (8ft. 11.1 in.).
84. The world’s tallest woman is Sandy Allen. She is 2.35m (7 ft. 7 in.).
85. The only 2 animals that can see behind themselves without turning its head are the rabbit and the parrot.
86. The blue whale is the largest animal on earth. The heart of a blue whale is as big as a car, and its tongue is as long as an elephant.
87. The largest bird egg in the world today is that of the ostrich. Ostrich eggs are from 6 to 8 inches long. Because of their size and the thickness of their shells, they take 40 minutes to hard-boil. The average adult male ostrich, the world’s largest living bird, weighs up to 345 pounds.
88. Every dolphin has its own signature whistle to distinguish it from other dolphins, much like a human fingerprint
89. The world’s largest mammal, the blue whale, weighs 50 tons i.e. 50000 Kg at birth. Fully grown, it weighs as much as 150 tons i.e. 150000 Kg.
90. 90 % of all the ice in the world in on Antarctica
91. Antarctica is DRIEST continent. Antarctica is a desert
92. Antarctica is COLDEST continent, averaging minus 76 degrees in the winter
93. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and it doesn’t have a moon. Its atmosphere is so thin that during the day the temperature reaches 750 degrees, but at night it gets down to -300 degrees.
94. Jupiter is the largest planet. If Jupiter were hollow, you could fit 1000 earths inside! It is made up of gas and is not solid. The most famous feature on Jupiter is its Red Spot, which is actually an enormous hurricane that has been raging on Jupiter for hundreds of years! Sixteen moons orbit Jupiter.
95. Saturn is a very windy place! Winds can reach up to 1,100 miles per hour. Saturn is also made of gas. If you could find an ocean large enough, it would float. This planet is famous for its beautiful rings, and has at least 18 moons.
96. Uranus is the third largest planet, and is also made of gas. It’s tilted on its side and spins north-south rather than east-west. Uranus has 15 moons.
97. Neptune takes 165 Earth years to get around the sun. It appears blue because it is made of methane gas. Neptune also has a big Spot like Jupiter. Winds on Neptune get up to 1,200 mile per hour! Neptune has 8 moons.
98. Pluto is the farthest planet from the sun… usually. It has such an unusual orbit that it is occasionally closer to the sun than Neptune. Pluto is made of rock and ice.
99. Just about everyone listens to the radio! 99% of homes in the United States have a least one radio. Most families have several radios.
100. Sound is sent from the radio station through the air to your radio by means of electromagnetic waves. News, music, Bible teaching, baseball games, plays, advertisements- these sounds are all converted into electromagnetic waves (radio waves) before they reach your radio and your ears.
 

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Pakistan Studies Quiz
Pakistan General Knowledge Test

• Dinna, the daughter of Jinnah was born on 14th August, 1919.
• Dinna married a Parsi boy named Navel Wadya.
• Jinnah left the lawyership after 23rd March, 1940 nd returned to India in April 1934.
• Pakistan national movement was founded by Ch: Rahmat Ali.
• Lilaquat Ali Khan Joined Muslim League in 1924.
• Sindh separated from Bombay in 1935.
• The system of Dyarchy (Two authorities) was in operation from 1921-1937. (chk it).
• Dyarchy introduced in 1919 reforms and removed in 1935 Act.
• Dyarchy was introduced as a constitutional reform by E.S. Montague and Lord Chelmsford.
• Dyarchy divided India into 8 major provinces (excluding Burma.)
• Jinnah-Rajendra Prasal formula came in 1935.
• Provincial elections held in 1937.
• Pirpur Report about congress ministries came in 1938.
• Shareef report about Bihar came in 1939.
• Muslims observed “Day of Deliverance” on 22nd Dec: 1939.
• A committee under the chairmanship of Raja Mohd: Mehdi was appointed to inquire into congress ministries.
• August Offer was offered by Viceroy Lord Llinthgow in 1940.
• Cripps visited India in 1942.
• Quit India movement started in1942.
• Simla conference (June, 1945) was presented by Lord Wavel.
• Wavel plan was made in 1945.
• In 1945, Labour Party came to power.
• In 1945 elections ML won 428 out of 492 seats.
• In 1946, Quaid decided to join Interim govt in India.
• In interim govt: ML got portfolis of Finance & Liaquat Ali was Finance Minister.
• J.N.Mandal was the non-Muslim member who became a minister in interim govt: on ML behalf.
• On the arrival of Simon Commission, ML was divided in to Mohd: Shafee & Quaid groups.
• Unionist’s Ministry was in Punjab.
• Fouinder of Unionist Party in Punjab was Sir Fazle Hussain.
• Sir Siney Rollet was the president of Rollet Committee whose objective was to check Home Rule Movement.
• Real name of Gandhi was Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi.
• Burma separated from India in 1935 and was made independent in 1947.
• Sindh asssembley passed the resoluation for the creation of Pak: firstly on June 26, 1947.
• Lahore Resolution was presented in 27th Session of Muslim League at Monto Park (now Iqbal Park) on 23rd March, 1940 by Fazal-al-Qaq of Bengal. Quaid presided the session.
• The book ‘last dominion’ was written by Carthill.
• “Divide and Quit” is wtitten by Penderel Moon.
• “Mission with Mountbatten” written by Campbell Johnson.
• Liaquat Desai pact was concluded in 1946.
• Cabinet mission announced its plan on 16th May, 1946.
• Cabinet Mission consisted of 8 members.
• ML accepted Cabinet Mission but Congress rejected it.
• Muslim League observed direct action day on 16th August 1946.
• On 18th July, 1947, British parliament passed Indian Independence Bill.
• MP of England at the time of independence of Pak: was Lord Cunet Iteley.
• Redcliffe Award announced on 15th August 1947.
• On April, 1947, All India State’s Conference was held in Gawalior.
• Inquilab Zindabad slogan was given by Mohammd Iqbal
Pakistan Studies Solved Past Papers

• Post of Commander-in-Chief changed to Chief of Staff in 1970.
• Post of Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff was created in 1976.
• East Pakistan became Bangladesh on 16 Dec: 1971.
• Simla Agreement signed b/w Bhutto and Indra Gandhi on 2nd July’1972.
• Nationalization of educational institutions & industries in 1972.
• Nationalization of banks made in 1974.
• Denationalization of banks make on Jan:9, 1991 (First MCB).
• Pak: Broadcasting Corporation established on Dec: 20, 1972.
• The constitution of 1973 was enforced on 1 March 1973.
• PM under the 1973 constitution is the head of the cabinet.
• The first general elections under the 1973 constitution were held in 1977.
• First biogas plant established in 1974.
• Ahmadis declared non-Muslims in 1974.
• Colour transmission started on 20th Dec: 1976.
• First electric train started in 1970.
• Steel Mill founded in 1973 (USSR aided) in Bin Qasim.
• Pakistan recognized Bangladesh in 1974.
• Pakistan joined OIC in 1974, NAM in 1979, PTBT in 1978, SAARC in 1985.
• Hudood ordinance enforced on 10 Feb: 1979.
• Dr. Abdul Salam awarded Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979.
• Faiz Ahmed Faiz got Lenin Prize.
• Gen-Zia successed ex-President Fazal Ellahi Choudhri.
• In dec: 1981, Ziaul Haq announced Majlis-e-Shoora with 350 members.
• Zakat & Ushr ordinance promulgated in 1980.
• Wafaqui Mohtasib was created in 1983.
• 8th amendment introduced in 1985.
• Gen.Zia lifted Martial Law on 30th December, 1985.
• Nuclear cooperation pact with China was made on 15th Sep: 1986.
• Ojri camp tragedy occurred on 10 april 1988.
• The Junejo government was dismissed on 29th May, 1988.
• Zia died on 17 August, 1988.
• US ambassador who died with Zia was Arnold Raphael.
• Ghulam Ishaque Khan became president of Pakistan in 1988.
• Pakistan’s re-entry in common wealth in 1989.
• First test tube baby at Lahore in 1989.
• PTV2: 1992, PTV Morning: Jan 6, 1988, PTV:Sep: 2000.
• Kargil Crisis in 1999.
• Musharaf elected president (10th) on 20 June, 2001.
• Durand Line agreement b/w Sir Martimur Durand the FS of Britain and Amir
•Abur Rehman, the Afghan ruler November 12, 1893 at Kabul (2050 km, 1300 miles)
• HBFC was set up in Nov: 1952.
• First satellite Badr-I launched on 16 July, 1990.
• On 28 May, 1998 five blasts made at Chagi, the day is known as Yum-e-Takbir.
• On 17 May, 1998 India blasted in Pokhran (Rajistan).
• Pak: entered nuclear club on 28 May, 1998.
• First bank of Pak: = Habib Bank.
• Defece day=6th Sep:
• Defence day of Pakistan is celebrated on Sep: 6 since 1966
• Airforce day= 7th Sep:
• Navy Day=8th Sep:
• Kashmir Day=5th Feb:
• Friday was declared holiday in Jan: 1977.
• EBODO promulgated in 1959.
• PRODA came in 1949-1954.
• Wheat crisis occurred in 1952.
• Number of basic democratc was 80,000.
• Ghuauri is Surface to Surface missile.
• Anza is Surface to Air missile.
• Age of senator is 30.
• Age of PM is 35.
• Number of tribal areas is 11.
• Pakistan Withdrew from SEATO in 1973.
• Pakistan left CENTO in March 1979.
• Nasir Shabir was first Pakistani to conquer Mount Everest.
• Capital of was shifted from Karachi to Islamabad on 1 August 1960.
• Indus Basin Treaty was concluded on 19th Sep 1960.
• KANNUP was established in 1971.
• Tashkent Declaration was signed on 10 Jan 1966.
• Saudi King Shah Faisal visited Pakistan in the year of 1966 and 1974.
• Pakistan was suspended from commonwealth on 18 Oct 1999.
• Mr. Ghulam Muhammad was finance minister before becoming governor general of Pakistan.
• Badr I launched on 16th July 1990.
• First Agriculture University was established in Faisalabasd.
• Pakistan joined SEATO in 1954 but later withdrew from it in the year 1973.
• Moraji Desai, former PM of India was the only Indian leader awarded the highest award of Pakistan for a civilian.•
Pakistan Studies Solved MCQS for PMS CSS PPSC SPSC

• 17th Oct: 1951 Liaquat shot dead in Rawalpindi by Syed Akbar.
• Liaquat visited USA in 1951.
• Pakistan issued it first coin on 3rd Jan: 1948.
• Quaid inaugurated State Bank on 1st July’1948.
• National Bank of Pakistan formed in 1948.
• First postal stamp issued in 1948.
• Karachi radio station inaugurated by Liaquat on 14th August’1948.
• Pakistan recognized China in 1949.
• In 1949 July, Pak: got Siachen under Karachi agreement.
• Siachen is located in Baltistan.
• Siachen is world’s 2nd highest glacier.
• 22 points of Ulema put on 24th Jan: 1951 by 31 Ulema.
• BBC started its first Urdu service on 13th April, 1949.
• In 1950, Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot founded Jinnah Muslim League party.
• PIA founded: 1954 started international service: 1955 to Jordan via Cairo.
• Pakistan got status of Test cricket in 1952.
• Sui gas founded in 1952.
• First five year plan launched in1955.
• National Anthem first broadcasted on radio: 13 August, 1954.
• Pakistan signed CENTO (Baghdad Pact) on 23Sep: 1955.
• West Pakistan declared “one unit” in 1955 by Mohd: Ali Bogra.
• “One unit” repealed on 1st Jan: 1971.
• First acting Governor General of Pak: was Major General Sikandar Mirza 17th August 1955 to 16th Oct: 1955.
• President Iskandar Mirza visited Afghanistan in 1956.
• One unit bill passed during the period of Chaudhry Mohd: Ali 14th oct: 1955 and cancelled on 25th March 1969 by Yahya .
• During one unit first GG of west Pak: was Nawab Mushtaque Ahmed Gormani and first CM was Dr. Khan Sahib In 1956.
• Pakistan became Islamic Republic on 23rd March, 1956.
• 1956 constitution was presented in assembly in Feb 29, 1956.(Early-Governments-and-Constitution)
• Martial law was imposed in Lahore in 1953.
• Ch: Rehmat Ali is buried in Cambridge (London)
• Pakistan joined SEATO in Sep: 1954.
• In Sept: 1958 Gawadar was bought by Khan of Kalat at 40 lacs pounds from Oman
• 1st Martial Law= 7 Oct: 1958 ( Gen Ayub Khan-regime )
• 2nd Martial Law=26 March 1969(Gen Yahya-khan-regime)
• 3rd Martial Law=7 July 1977 (Gen-zia-regime)
• Ayub became first elected president on 17 Feb: 1960.
• Ayub transferred capital from Karachi to Islamabad on 1st August 1960.
• Indus Basin Treaty signed under World Bank in Sep: 1960.
• Pakistan made boundary agreement with Iran on 21st May 1960.
• U2 incident happened in 1960.
• Ayub khan appointed Ameer Muhammad Khan as Governor of West Pakistan.
• Ayub visited US & Queen Elizbeth visited Pakistan in 1961.
• Ayub Khan visited USSR on 3rd April, 1965, US in 1961.
• Television started on 26 Nov: 1964.
• Zafarullah Khan served as president of UN General Assembly’s 7th session in 1962.
• Boundary agreement with China was signed in 1963.
• Agreement with Canada on first nuclear power station in Karachi was signed in 1965.
• Z.A Bhutto served as F.M in Ayub Govt:
• Convention League was formed by Ayub.
• 1965 war started from 6 to 22 Sept: 1965.(Indo-pakistani-wars)
• Defense day is celebrated in Pakistan since 1966.
• Major Aziz Bhatti was martyred in 1965 war.
• Tashkent Pact was signed by Ayub Khan & Shastri on 3 Jan:, 1966 (USSR, Kosijin)
• Fatima Jinnah died in 1967. She was born on 1st August, 1893.
• Kashmir valley is b/w Big Hamalia and Little Hamlia.
• Length of Indus from Hamalia to Arabian Sea is 1980 miles.
• Ancient name of India was Arya Warat.
• LFO was promulgated on 30th March, 1970 by Yahya Khan.
• The post of C-in-C was converted into the post of Chief of Staff in 1970.
• 2nd war between India & Pakistan: 3 to 17 Dec: 1971.
• Last commander of Pak: in East Pak: Abdullah Khan Naizi.
• PNSC established on 1st March 1979.
• PTV started its color transmission on December 20th, 1976.
• Pakistan signed PTBT in 1978.


 

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CSS Pakistan Studies MCQS
• Pakistan became member of UNO on 30th Sep: 1947and the member of NAM in 1979.
• Pakistan became member of World Bank in 1950.
• Liaquat visited India in April 1950.
• Referendum in NWFP held 6-17 July, 1947.
• Azad Kashmir govt: was setup on 24 Oct: 1947.
• Basic democracy system came in May 1959.
• 2nd Constitution made by Ayub came in March 1, 1962.
• First martyr of Pak: Khuwaja Mohd: Sharif of Ludhiana
• Canal water Pact with India=4th May, 1948.
• The first governor of Bengal Province was Sir Fredrick Boran, second was Malik Feroz Khan Noon.
• First CM of Bengal Province was Khuwaja Nazimuddin, the second CM was Noor-al-Amin.
• Urdu made national language on 25th Feb: 1948 (chk it)
• The second constituent assembly consisted of 80 members.
• When did Jinnah visit East Pakistan as Governor General? March, 1948
• When did the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan adopted a resolution presented by the Government for formally proclaiming Karachi as Capital of the Dominion of Pakistan? May 1948
• First C.M of Sindh: Mr. Muhammad Ayub Khuhro
• Muhammad Ayub Khuhro was dismissed in April, 1948?
• E. De V. Moss was appointed as Chief Pakistan Refugee Commissioner?
• The first Chief Minister of East Bengal? Khawajah Nazimuddin
• Quaid-e-Azam died on Sept. 11, 1948 due to Cardiac Arrest
• Jannah passed away at 72 at 10:20 p.m in G.G House Karachi and buried on 12th Sep: 1948 A.D.
• Funeral prayer of Quaid: Shabir Ahmed Usmani.
• 40 days of mouring was announced on Quaid’s death.
• Who was the successor of Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General? Khawajah Nazimuddin
• Jinnah had portfolio of Frontier States and Regions after him Liaquat Ali Khan took over this portfolio.
• Objective Resolution presented by Liaquat Ali Khan 13th March, 1949
• Basic Principles Committee set up by the Constituent Assembly to frame a draft Constitution.
• Basic Principles Committee presented its report in September, 1950
• Planning Board turned into Planning Commission:1951
• Landlordism abolished in East Bengal: 1950
• Liaquat Ali Khan visited USA:1951
• Liaquat Ali Khan spend in USA: Three weeks
• Te title of the published collection of Liaquat’s speeches meant to introduce Pakistan to the West? Pakistan, Heart of Asia
• Conspiracy to overthrow Liaquat Government come to light Rawal Pindi: March 1951
• Liaquat Ali khan was assassinated in Rawalpindi on 16th October, 1951. Was buried in Karachi near Quaid.
• Liaquat ali Khan born in Kernal (East Punjab) on 1st Oct: 1895.
• Who replaced Liaquat Ali Khan as Prime Minister? Khawajah Nazimuddin
• Who replaced Nazimuddin as Governor General? Ghulam Muhammad
• Jamilla was the first Muslim girl who hoisted Muslim League flag onteh Punjab Secreterat, Lahore (1946)
• Rawalpindi became the temporary capital of Pak: in 1960.
• First commissioner of Sindh Charles Napier.
• Sindh assembly proclaimed Sindhi as official language of Sindh in 1972.
• Baluchistan got status of province on 1st July, 1970.
• Pak: bought Gawader (1958) & Jiwani from Oman.
• Pak: came into being on 27 Ramzan, 1366 A.H Thursday.
• Pak: standard time was adopted on Oct:1, 1951.
• Population Census-1951, 61,72,81,98.
• The only vice-president of Pak: Noorul Amin.
• Father’s name of Quaid= Jinnah Poonja
• Father’s name of Iqbal=Shaikh Noor Mohd:
• 27 Oct: 1947 was observed “Black Day” as Indian forces landed in Azad Kashmir.
• Sheikh Abdullah was called founder of National Conference.
• Indian Forces occupied Kashmir the state of Jammu and Kashmir on October 27, 1947.
• Distance of Kashmir from Pakistan is 250 miles.
• Hari Singh was the maharaja of Kashmir in 1947.
• % of Muslim population in Kashmir in 1947 was 78%.
• UN commission members for India & Pak: were 3 (later 5) visited in July,1948.
• Sir Owen Dixon was UN Representative for demilitarization of Kashmir.
• National anthem of Pakistan was played for the first time on August 13, 1954.
• Urdu made National Language in April 1954 it has 37 letters.
• Birth place of Quaid Wazir Mension.
• House of Quaid Mohata Palace.
• Allama Iqbal’s tomb was built in 1951.
• Liaquat Nehru Pact= April 1951.
PPSC Pakistan Studies MCQS

• Geoffrey Prior took oath as Chief Commissioner Baluchistan.
• Last Governor of the undivided Punjab? Sir Even Jenkins
• Who took oath as the Chief Minister of Sindh? MA Khuro
• Iftikhar Hussain Mamdot took oath as chief Minister of West Punjab
• Who was the first Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army? General Frank Walter Messervy, 15-08-1947 to 10-02-1948
• Who was the First Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Navy? Rear Admiral James Wilfred
• Who was the First Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Air Force? Air Marshal L. Parry Cane
• Hafiz Abdul Majeed was appointed as Chief Secretary, West Punjab on 18th August, 1947.
• Friday was declared as half working day: 22nd August, 1947
• Iran & Pakistan established diplomatic relations: 22nd August, 1947
• When was the Governor George Cunningham directed by the Government of Pakistan to dismiss the NWFP Congress Ministry headed by Khan Sahib? 22nd August, 1947
• Who was invited to form the NWFP Government after dismissal of the Congress Ministry headed by Khan Sahib? NWFP Muslim League head, Khan Abdul Qaiyum Khan
• First Pakistani documentary film was shown in the cinemas in Karachi on 30-08-1947. What was it about? Events from 2nd to 15th August, 1947
• On 2nd September, 1947 the first Pakistani film was released. What was its title? “Teri Yadd”
• Which actors played the lead roles in the first Pakistani film? Asha Bhonslay and Nasir Khan
• Who was appointed as Head of the Pakistani delegation to the UN? Mrs.Tasaddaq Hussain on 13th September, 1947
• Who was the first US ambassador to Pakistan? Paul H. Ealing (assumed charge on 23rd September, 1947)
• Which country sent 4750 tons rice for making up shortage of food in East Bengal on Sept. 19, 1947? Burma
• When was Karachi linked by air with all the provincial capitals? 6th October, 1947
• From which date Postage Stamps were made available in Post Offices? 6th October, 1947
• Who was appointed as the First Muslim Advocate General of the West Punjab? Sheikh Shabbir
• When was Pakistan admitted as member of the United Nations? 30th September, 1947
• Who was the Minister for Food and Agriculture in the first Cabinet of Pakistan? Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan
• Urdu restarted its publications from Karachi on October 15, 1947 as Pakistan’s First National daily in Urdu
• Who was appointed Pakistan’s ambassador to Iran? Qazi Issa
• Pakistan’s ambassador to USA? A. H. Isphahani
• Indian Dy. Prime Minister in its very first cabinet after partition? Sardar Patel
• the Secretary of the Indian Ministry of States? V.P. Menon
• Elections to First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan 1946.
• Pakistan’s constituent assembly made on July 20th, 1947.
• 69 members in the first constituent assembly of Pakistan.
• 10 members were later added to the constituent assembly.
• Quaid-e-Azam addressed to the constituent assembly for the first time on 11th August, 1947.
• Pakistan’s first cabinet was sworn in 15th August, 1947.
• Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar held the portfolion of Communications in the first cabinet of Pakistan.
• Besides being PM of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan held the portfolios of Defense and Commonwealth.
• First cabinet of Pakistan consisted of 7 members including Prime Minister.
• Besides PMship, Liaquat had portfolio of Defence and common wealth.
• Quaid had portfolio of State and Frontier region.
• Zafarullah Khan had Foreign Affairs.
• I.I.Chundrigar had Trade, Industry & Public Works.
• Malik Ghulam Mohad: had Finance.
• Raja Ghazanfar had Food, Agriculture and health.
• Abdul Rab Nishtar had communication.
• Fazal ur Rehman had Internal Affairs, Information & Education.
• Objective Resolution was presented in the Constituent Assembly on 7th Mrach 1949 by Liaquat Ali.
• Mountbatten addressed the constituent assembly of Pak: on 14th August, 1947.
• Constituent Assembly declared Urdu & Bengali as official languages on 3rd Jan: 1954.
• On 24th October, 1954, constituent assembly was dissolved by the governor general of Pakistan Mr. Ghulam Mohammad
Pakistan Studies Solved MCQS

• National anthem of Pak: was played for first time on 13th August, 1954 in front of Raza Shah Pahlavi of Iran.
• Plan of division of Indo-Pak: announced on 3rd June, 1947.
• Population of Pak: at it birth was 32 million.
• First head of state to visit Pak: in 1947 was Ameer of Kuwait.
• First president to visit was of Indonesia.
• First opposition party of Pak: Jinnah Awami league it was founded by Abudl hameed Bhashwani in 1950.
• Area of Pakistan 796,096 sq: km.
• National anthem written by Hafiz Jalundri in Charage Sahar in Sinf of Makhmas.
• Music composed by Ahmed Ali Chagla.
• Flag of Pakistan designed by Ameeruding Qadwani.
• Ch: Kahliquzaman became president of ML after Quaid.
• Ayub khan laid down foundation stone of Quaid’s Mosulem.
• Which airline helped movement of 35000 people from Pakistan to India between Oct. 20 to Nov. 30, 1947? (The same airline also moved 7000 Muslim Govt. officials and the families from Delhi to Pakistan). British Overseas Airways Corporation
• Pakistan’s share 700 million was actually paid.
• Unanimously elected Quaid as President of the Pakistan’s first Constituent Assembly on Aug. 11, 1947
• 27th August, 1947: Pakistan admitted as Member of the Food and Agriculture Organization of UN
• U.S. embassy in Karachi was established August 15, 1947
• The first US ambassador to Pakistan, Paul H. Alling, was appointed on September 20, 1947.
• Who was the British Prime Minister at the time of the partition of India? Attlee
• When was it announced by that June 1948 had been determined as the date of withdrawal of British power from India? Feb. 20, 1947
• Secretary of State for India in 1947: Lord Listowel
• Viceroy of India from 1943 to 1947: Lord Wavell
• Mountbatten arrive in Delhi: March 22, 1947
• Jinnah meet Lord Mountbatten first time: April 5, 1947
• When did Lord Mountbatten announced the partition plan? June 3, 1947
• Mountbatten address the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan? 14th August, 1947
• Indian Independence Bill moved in the British Parliament? July 4, 1947
• Time of creation of Pakistan12 a.m. at the night between 14th and 15th August, 1947?
• Who first time announced in English “This is Pakistan Broadcasting Service” at the time of creation of Pakistan? Mr. Zahoor Azar
• Who first time announced in Urdu “This is Pakistan Broadcasting Service” at the time of creation of Pakistan? Ghulam Mustafa Hamdani
• Egypt announced its recognition of Pakistan 16th August, 1947
• Pakistan applied for membership of UNO: 16th August, 1947
• What is the estimated number of people who migrated on partition of India in 1947? 8,500,000 (dubbed as “largest migration in history” by Information office Delhi)
• When did the Pakistan Assembly pass the resolution for changing the name of West Punjab to Punjab? 07-01-1948
• When was it announced that Jinnah would be the Governor General of Pakistan? July 10, 1947
• The last Governor of the undivided Punjab? Sir Evan Jenkins
• What does RSS stand for? Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh
• Who was the Finance Minister in the first cabinet of the Dominion of Pakistan? Ghulam Muhammad
• When did Liaquat Ali Khan move in the Constituent Assembly that the title of “Quaid-e-Azam” be used for Jinnah in official correspondence? Aug. 12, 1947
• When was Jinnah’s name was read in Khutaba at the Pakistan colony mosque by the Sindh Education Minister Pir Illahi Bukhsh? Aug. 22, 1947
• when was it announced that Jinnah would act as Legal Guide to the Assembly in drafting the Constitution? Aug. 23, 1947
• When was the announcement made from Delhi for setting up a Constituent Assembly for Pakistan? July 26, 1947
• When did Jinnah reach Karachi to take part in the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly? Aug. 7, 1947
• 79 members in the first Constituent Assembly for Pakistan?
• When did Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah take oath as the first Governor General of Pakistan? Aug. 15, 1947
• Who administered the oath of M.A. Jinnah? Chief Justice of Lahore High Court, Justice Abdur Rasheed
• Who administered the oath of Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan? Muhammad Ali Jinnah
• What was the venue of the oath taking ceremony of Quaid-e-Azam and Liaquat Ali Khan? Karachi
• Sir Francis Maudi took oath as First Governor of West Punjab?
• Who took oath as the First Governor of East Bengal? Sir Frederick Bourne
• George Cunningham took oath as First Governor of N.W.F.P.
• Sheikh Ghulam Hussain oath as the First Governor of Sindh?
 

Hoorain

*In search of Oyster Pearls*
VIP
Dec 31, 2009
108,467
40,708
1,313
A n3st!
World General Knowledge Quiz (with answers)
41) The dates on which day and night is equal ar?
c) 21st march and 23rd september
42) Which is the deepest ocean in the world?
c) Pacific
43) The important country close to international date line is?
c) New zealand
44) Which of the following towns is situated at the highest altitude?
a) Lhasa
45) Which is the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere?
b) 21st june
46) What are the two seas linked by suez canal?
a) The mediterranean and red sea
47) Where is the coldest place situated in the world?
d) Antarctica
48) Which place in the world has the least rainfall?
a) Africa
49) Which is the biggest fresh water lake in the world?
d) Lake superior
50) South pole is located in the continent of ?
d) Antarctica
51) Which is the longest river in the world?
a) Nile
52) Which is the deepest lake in the world?
c) Baikal
53) Which is the largest lake in Africa?
c) Victoria
54) Which is the largest desert in the world present in north Africa?
b) Sahara
55) On the banks of which river is the city of London located?
b) Thames
56) The rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Bea and sutlej are tributaries of which river?
b) Indus
57) Which among the following trees is considered the tallest in the world?
c) Eucalyptus
58) Which of the following is a Kharif Crop?
b) Rice
59) Humidity in the river is maximum in ?
c) Monsoon
60) World’s largest river is?
c) Amazon
 

Hoorain

*In search of Oyster Pearls*
VIP
Dec 31, 2009
108,467
40,708
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A n3st!
General knowledge questions about intelligence and IQ testing.

(Answer Key, bottom of page)

1. The first reasonably valid IQ test in the world was developed by

A. Alfred Binet
B. Lewis Terman
C. David Wechsler
D. William Stern

2. Which of the following is true of Binet's approach?

A. he interpreted scores on his test as a measure of innate intelligence.
B. he wanted to use test scores to identify children who needed special help.
C. he tied the development of his test to a fairly complex theory of intelligence.
D. he chose problems for the test that could only be scored subjectively.

3. Most experts view intelligence as a person's

A. general knowledge
B. ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.
C. technical skills
D. ability to perform well on IQ tests

4. Spearman's g factor refers to

A. an IQ test's validity and reliability
B. a general intelligence that underlies success on a variety of tasks
C. the environmental contribution to intelligence
D. the standardization process of an IQ test.

5. The first intelligence test was created for the purpose of

A. measuring academic ability, social cognition, and creativity
B. studying differences in cognitive ability among various human races
C. identifying children who might have difficulty in school
D. assessing thinking, spatial skills, and insight

6. A child with an IQ of 110 should be

A. grounded and made to study harder
B. placed in a gifted class
C. placed in a class for the mentally retarded
D. placed in a regular class

7. The IQs of adopted children are better predicted from the IQs of their

A. foster parents
B. natural parents
C. adoptive parents
D. grandparents

8. In considering the nature of intelligence, experts would be most likely to agree that intelligence is

A. shaped at birth
B. fixed at birth and cannot change
C. the ability to learn from experience
D. composed of many different traits

9. Studies around the world consistently yield estimates that

A. heredity is responsible for 90% of the variation in IQ
B. environment is responsible for all of IQ
C. about 50% of the variation in IQ is due to heredity
D. there is very little interaction between heredity and environment

6.D. A child is considered gifted if his IQ is over _______

A. 100
B. 110
C. 120
D. 130

Answer Key: 1.A 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.C 6.D 7.B 8.C 9.C 10.D
 
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